Note: for AP Biology level tutorials on cellular respiration, click here.

1. Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen

aerobic respiration requires oxygen

The typical kind of cellular respiration that animals do (and the respiration that we discussed in the last tutorial) is called aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration starts in the cytoplasm, then proceeds in the mitochondria, where fuel is broken down and ATP is released

Imagine this scenario. You’re riding your bike at a leisurely pace on a flat road. Your breathing is nice and easy. Your working, but not too hard.

This kind of easy, flat riding is definitely aerobic for the kids…and probably for the father.

At that moment, your respiration is completely aerobic. That’s because at this rate of exertion, you can deliver all the oxygen that your muscle cells need. What’s happening in your cells is C6H12O6 + 6O2 ?  energy(ATP) + 6CO2 + 6H2O

Similarly, any activity that you can sustain for an indefinite period of time is happening aerobically. Obviously, that includes activities where your body is resting. Sleeping, sitting: they’re aerobic, too.

2. Anaerobic respiration works without oxygen

Harder work requires switching to anaerobic respiration

Back to our bike ride. You reach a long, steep hill. Your muscles strain to keep the bike moving upward and forward. You start breathing harder to get more oxygen into your lungs. Your heart is beating faster to deliver that oxygen to your muscles.

After a while, your breathing rate and your heart rate reach their maximum. Yet even this maximum isn’t delivering enough oxygen to your system. At that point, you switch over to anaerobic respiration.

Anaerobic means without oxygen. In humans, what you’ll do is take glucose, and, in many steps, break it down to two molecules of a three carbon molecule called  lactic acid.

Anaerobic respiration in humans produces lactic acid

Lactic acid’s formula is C?H?O?, and that makes it very easy to remember. Take glucose (C6H12O6), divide it in half, and you get lactic acid (C?H?O?). This entire process–taking glucose and anaerobically converting it to lactic acid–is known as lactic acid fermentation.

Anaerobic respiration allows you to continue to temporarily make some ATP, even when your your body can’t deliver enough oxygen. The amount of ATP is much less than aerobic respiration (only 2 ATPs for each molecule of glucose). But, when you need ATP, it’s enough to keep you going.

Some activities are primarily anaerobic. Whether you’re swimming, running, or cycling, you can only sprint for a short amount of time. During the sprint, your heart and lungs can’t deliver the amount of oxygen that your muscles need. Almost immediately, your cells switch to anaerobic respiration, and after a short period of time, you’ll have to stop. After you do, your heart rate and breathing rate will stay elevated, delivering oxygen to your oxygen-depleted cells, which then switch back to aerobic respiration.

To figure out if an activity is aerobic or anaerobic, you just have to ask yourself one question: can I sustain this for a long time? The best marathon runners have to keep their pace at a level that they can sustain for just over two hours: that’s why marathon running is primarily aerobic. The same is true of long distance cycling. Activities that can’t be sustained, like sprinting or lifting weights, are primarily anaerobic. Of course, many sports have a combination of both: even marathoners might need to sprint to the finish line.

Yogurt is produced through lactic acid fermentation

Some other organisms also perform lactic acid fermentation. For example, the bacteria that we use to make yogurt from milk carry out same reaction. That’s why yogurt is sour: lactic acid, like all acids, has a sour tast

3. Flashcards: Anaerobic Respiration and lactic acid fermentation

[qdeck random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-HSenergy, Aerobic respiration and lactate fermentation flashcards”]

[h]Flashcards: Anaerobic respiration and Lactic Acid Fermentation

[i]While this set of flashcards primarily focuses on anaerobic respiration, it also includes some material from previous tutorials in this series.

[!!!!!] Review Card 1 [/!!!!!]

[q]Complete this word equation for cellular respiration

glucose+ _________ ? ATP + carbon dioxide + water

[textentry]

[a]glucose+ oxygen ? ATP + carbon dioxide + water

[!!]Card 1[/!!!!]

[q]Respiration that requires oxygen is _____________ respiration

[textentry]

[a]Respiration that requires oxygen is aerobic respiration.

[!!]Card 2[/!!!!]

[q]Respiration that can occur without oxygen is _____________ respiration

[textentry]

[a]Respiration that can occur without oxygen is anaerobic respiration.

[!!]Card 3[/!!!!]

[q]Aerobic respiration produces ______ ATP than anaerobic respiration.

[textentry]

[a]Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration.

[!!]Card 4[/!!!!]

[q]Aerobic respiration produces more _____ than anaerobic respiration.

[textentry]

[a]Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration.

[!!]Card 5[/!!!!]

[q]Activities that are sustainable are primarily done using ________ respiration.

[textentry]

[a]Activities that are sustainable are primarily done using aerobic respiration.

[!!]Card 6[/!!!!]

[q]Anaerobic respiration in animals involves taking glucose and breaking it down to ___ ____.

[textentry]

[a]Anaerobic respiration in animals involves taking glucose and breaking it down to lactic acid. 

[!!]Card 7[/!!!!]

[q]Anaerobic respiration in animals involves taking ________ and breaking it down to lactic acid.

[textentry]

[a]Anaerobic respiration in animals involves taking glucose and breaking it down to lactic acid.

[!!]Card 8[/!!!!]

[q]Anaerobic respiration can occur without ______.

[textentry]

[a]Anaerobic respiration can occur without oxygen.

 

[!!!!!] Review card 2 [/!!!!]
[q]Complete this chemical equation for cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ? energy(ATP) + 6CO2 + _____ (don’t worry about typing subscripts)
[textentry]

[a]C6H12O6 + 6O2 ? energy(ATP) + 6CO2 + 6H2O

[!!!!!] Review card 3 [/!!!!]
[q]The transformation of the energy in food into the energy in ATP is called ______ _____.

[textentry]

[a]The transformation of the energy in food into the energy in ATP is called cellular respiration.

[x]

[restart]

[/qdeck]

4. Alcohol Fermentation is another form of anaerobic respiration

The bubbles in beer are from the carbon dioxide produced during alcohol fermentation

Another fermentation is the one used to make alcoholic beverages like beer and wine. In this fermentation, yeast (single celled fungi) take the sugar in fruit (or other plant parts) and break it down to alcohol and carbon dioxide. In the process, as with lactic acid fermentation, they produce a little bit of ATP. Along with alcohol, the yeast produce carbon dioxide.

Here’s a very schematic view of the pathway for alcohol fermentation.

Alcohol fermentation produces alcohol and carbon dioxide

In wine production, the carbon dioxide is allowed to escape. In beer production, it’s kept within the beer (making the bubbles in beer).

Similarly, the reason why bread rises is because of the carbon dioxide produced by yeast that are used to make the bread rise.

5. Checking Understanding

In this module, we’ve discussed

  1. The difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  2. Lactic acid fermentation
  3. Alcohol fermentation

If you understand these concepts, take the quiz below. Then proceed to the next module in this series.

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-HSenergy, aerobic v anaerobic quiz”]

[h]Quiz: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]When food is broken down for energy in cells with oxygen, the process is

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Breakdown of food for energy WITHOUT oxygen is called

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]You’re riding your bike on a flat road. The pace is nice and easy. You could do it all day. Your production of ATP is

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]You’re lifting weights. After ten repetitions, your muscles start to burn, and you’re having more and more difficulty lifting the weight. Your production of ATP is

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]When humans and other animals perform anaerobic respiration, one of the byproducts is

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Lactic acid fermentation is a form of _____________ respiration.

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Yogurt is sour because the bacteria used to create yogurt from milk create

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Beer and wine are made through

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]The bubbles in beer are made of

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Yeast are placed in a flask containing sugar and water. A balloon is placed over the mouth of the flask. Several hours later, the balloon has inflated. What happened?

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Alcoholic fermentation is a form of

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Aerobic respiration requires

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]The release of energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen is

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]The processes of fermentation and aerobic respiration are similar in that both produce

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[restart]
[/qwiz]

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