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Now, do the flashcards that follow

Module 1 Flashcards

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[h]Module 1: Themes/Big Ideas

[i]Welcome!

Here’s how to use these flashcards:

Look at the question. Say the answer out loud.

Click “Check Answer.”

If you got it right, click “Got it”

If you need more practice, click “need more practice!”

Keep working until you’ve mastered all the cards.

 

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95d33b64487d5″ question_number=”1″]Define biology.

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[a]Biology is the science of life.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95cf72d0f5fd5″ question_number=”2″]What are the four key themes of biology (also the 4 “Big Ideas” promoted in the College Board’s AP Biology Curriculum)?

card A2208

[a]* Evolution
* Systems (and system interactions)
* Information Flow
* Matter and Energy Flow

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95cbcf7e61bd5″ question_number=”3″]Define evolution.

card A2209

[a]Evolution can be defined as “the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.” (New Oxford American Dictionary).

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95c82c2bcd7d5″ question_number=”4″]What are genes?

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[a]Genes are the units of hereditary information that parents pass on to their offspring. Genes control (or influence) the expression of an organism’s hereditary traits.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95c3ce9581fd5″ question_number=”5″]As life changes over time, with parents passing on their genes to their offspring and with those genes themselves changing over time, a pattern emerges. You see this pattern when you look at different varieties of dogs, or different groups of mammals (whales, carnivores, rodents, elephants, etc.). What is that pattern?

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[a]The pattern is unity and diversity. For example, all mammals have at least some hair (at some point in their lives), are warm-blooded, and give milk to their young (unity.). At the same time, mammals have evolved into groups as diverse as whales, rodents, bats, carnivores, elephants, etc. (diversity).

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95c02b42edbd5″ question_number=”6″]What are adaptations?

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[a]Adaptations are structures or behaviors that perform life-sustaining functions and which increase an organism’s chance of surviving and/or reproducing.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95bc62af9b3d5″ question_number=”7″]Briefly describe how natural selection generates adaptations.

card A2213

[a]At this point in our course, you can explain natural selection as follows:
1) All populations have inherited (genetic) variations.
2) Living things over-reproduce.
3) Among the offspring, there will be differential survival (not all the your will survive at the same rate)
4)Some of the differences in survival among the young will be caused by selection for beneficial (inherited) traits. Those offspring with inherited traits that increase their chances of surviving and reproducing will survive and reproduce at a higher rate. When the offspring reproduce, they’ll pass the genes for these traits on to their offspring.
5) Repeat this multiple times, generation after generation, and you wind up with adaptations.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95b8bf5d06fd5″ question_number=”8″]Define “system.”

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[a]A system is “a set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole” (New Oxford American Dictionary).

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95b51c0a72bd5″ question_number=”9″]List and describe five attributes of a system.

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[a]Systems have boundaries, components (inner parts) inputs, processes, and outputs.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95b15377203d5″ question_number=”10″]What are emergent properties?

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[a]Emergent properties are system features that only are visible at the level of the entire system – they’re not reducible to (or predictable from) the features of the components, inputs, and outputs that make up the system. In other words, it’s the idea that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts.”

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95ad8ae3cdbd5″ question_number=”11″]What is the molecule of heredity?

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[a]The molecule of heredity is DNA. (note that there are a few viruses that use RNA, a molecule closely related to DNA, as their genetic material).

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95a977cefebd5″ question_number=”12″]What’s the difference between vertical and horizontal information flow?

card A2217

[a]Vertical information flow is the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next (from parent to offspring). Horizontal information flow is the processing and transfer of information within an organism (such as a response to a stimulus) or from organism to organism (through various types of communication).

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95a5af3bac3d5″ question_number=”13″]Describe the two ways that animals (like us) make use of the food we ingest?

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[a]Animals like us use food as 1) a source of energy to do the work of staying alive and reproducing, and 2) as a source of matter for growth, repair, and reproduction.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95a1e6a859bd5″ question_number=”14″]Describe, in words, what happens during cellular respiration.

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[a]During cellular respiration, organisms take an organic fuel (often sugar) and chemically combine it with oxygen to produce the energy molecule ATP. The waste products are carbon dioxide and water vapor.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|959d89120e3d5″ question_number=”15″]Describe, in words, what happens during photosynthesis.

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[a]During photosynthesis, organisms such as plants take in carbon dioxide and water. Using the sun’s energy, they combine these inputs to generate sugars. Oxygen is released as a waste product.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95992b7bc2bd5″ question_number=”16″]What’s the difference between how energy and matter move through living systems.
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[a]Energy flows in one direction through living systems, and eventually dissipates as heat (which can no longer be used as an energy source for sustaining life). But while energy flows, matter is recycled. Since it’s a cycle, you can start anywhere, but let’s start with matter in an inorganic (non-living) form (such as water and carbon dioxide). This inorganic matter then enters living systems, typically through a process like photosynthesis. Then it moves from organism to organism in food chains. When organisms die, the matter gets decomposed into non-living forms (such as carbon dioxide and water). And so the cycle of life goes on and on…

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|95951866f3bd5″ question_number=”17″]Thinking of life on Earth as a system, how are energy flow and matter flow different from one another?
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[a]In terms of energy, the Earth is an open system. Within this system, only the constant flow of energy from the sun sustains life. In terms of matter, Earth is (for the most part) a closed system. The atoms that make up living things today are (with the exception of matter from the the meteors that crash into the Earth’s surface or burn up in the atmosphere) the same atoms that have been making up living things for millions of years.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|9590958fe9fd5″ question_number=”18″]What’s the process that living things use to get energy from organic fuels like carbohydrates?

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[a]To get energy from carbohydrates (or other organic fuels), living things use a process called cellular respiration.

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[q json=”true” unit = “U1: Course Themes; Evolution and Natural Selection” topic = “M1: Key Themes Of Biology” dataset_id=”Module1Flashcards|9576894ae33d5″ question_number=”19″]Carbohydrates are created by plants through the process of

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[a]Carbohydrates are created by plants through the process of photosynthesis.

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[/qdeck]

Next steps

  1. Properties of Living things (next tutorial in this module)
  2. Biology Key Concepts main menu
  3. AP Biology Main menu