Link to The Cell Cycle Student Learning Guide

1. We all start from just one cell

Just before conception

At the start of your existence — in the first moments after your conception — you consisted of one cell. Now, you’re made of trillions of cells. The question that we’ll address below is how does one cell divide to become two?  

Note that we’re not, at the moment, addressing some related (and amazing) issues:

  • Every time a cell divides, all of the cell’s DNA has to be copied. That’s in another tutorial (DNA replication, accessible from the main menu above)
  • As an organism grows, some cells develop into nerve cells, muscle cells, skin cells, and so on. How do cells know what types of cells they should become? On top of that, how do cells grow into the patterns involved in structures like muscle tissue, or an organ like the stomach, or a structure like the hand? These questions are addressed in tutorials about eukaryotic gene regulation and animal development.

For now, let’s take a big-picture look at how one cell grows into two. To start, let’s focus on the image below, which shows a simplified mother cell (at far left) developing into two daughter cells (at far right).

majorEventsInMitosis

Note: Scroll through the text below while continuing to refer to the image above. 

The cells above are shown in a simplified form: all that’s shown is the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and two chromosomes. In reality, chromosomes don’t look anything like that, and they’re enclosed within a cell’s nucleus. The important point for now is that chromosomes are how  cells package their DNA.

In every cell in your body, half of your chromosomes were inherited from your mother, and the other half from your father.  In the cell shown at the far left, this is represented by having one chromosome colored in red, and the other in blue.

STEP 1: As cell division begins, the genetic information — the DNA — is replicated. After replication, each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids.

You can see this represented in the cell shown to the left. In the first cell, there are two chromosomes, one red, one blue. In the second cell, there are still two chromosomes, but each one is doubled, and now consists of two sister chromatids.

STEP 2: A network of protein fibers develops with the cell. These fibers are called spindle fibers, and they collectively create a structure called the spindle apparatus. This apparatus has two functions. 1) It grabs the duplicated chromosomes, and positions them at the center of the cell. 2) In preparation for splitting the mother cell into two daughter cells, it also causes the cell to elongate.

STEP 3: The fibers pull the sister chromatids apart. Once the sister chromatids are separated, they’re “upgraded” to full chromosome status.

For the resulting daughter cells to be able to survive, they need to have all the genetic information that the mother cell had. You can see that represented in the cell that’s immediately after step 3. This is a cell that’s about to divide into two (which is why it’s pinched in at the middle). The blue chromosome and the red chromosome on top will go to one daughter cell. The  red chromosome and the blue chromosome below will go to another daughter cell. The key point is that each of these about-to-be-new cells has the same complement of chromosomes (one red, one blue) as did their mother cell.

STEP 4. The cell divides, cinching in at the middle. The result is two daughter cells. This moment of division is called cytokinesis (“cell splitting”). Each cell is an exact genetic duplicate of the mother cell. In biology, we call exact copies like this clones. 

Got it? take the quiz below.

2. Mitosis Quiz: Key Concepts

[qwiz random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisKeyConcepts”]

[h] Mitosis Key concepts

[i] Here’s how these quizzes work:

  • Each question is multiple choice, but the entire quiz is like a series of flashcards.
  • If you get the question right, it comes off the deck.
  • If you get the question wrong, it goes to the bottom of the deck, so you can try it again.

[q]Which of the following is NOT a function that cell division plays in multicellular organisms?

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[q]Which of the following diseases is most directly related to abnormal cell division?

[c]IGNhbm Nlcg==

[c]IGN5c3RpYyBmaWJyb3Npcw==

[c]IEhlYXJ0IGF0dGFjaw==

[c]IERpYWJldGVz

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[q] Genetically, what’s the relationship between the daughter cells that result from cell division, and the parent cell?

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[q] In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing the separation of sister chromatids?

[c]IDE=

[c]IDI=

[c]ID M=

[c]IDQ=

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[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing chromosome duplication?

[c]ID E=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

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[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing cytokinesis?

[c]IDE=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]ID Q=

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[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing the creation of the spindle apparatus, which is the mechanism for pulling doubled chromosomes (also known as sister chromatids) apart?

[c]IDE=

[c]ID I=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

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[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number shows replication of DNA?

[c]ID E=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

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If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below

[restart]

[/qwiz]

3. Cell division is one part of the cell cycle

Onion root tips. Click to enlarge

The drawing below is from a sheet of onion root tip cells. You can see where these cells came from in the photograph to the right, within the yellow oval. This is a region of the plant where there’s a lot of growth, and therefore a lot of cell division. .

In most of the cells below such as the ones labelled “a,” all you can see is the cell wall, the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and one or two dark spots within the nucleus. These dark spots are called nucleoli (plural of nucleolus) and they’re the site of ribosome synthesis.

The cells labelled as “a” show no signs of dividing. By contrast, the cells labelled b, c, d, and e are either activity dividing or very recently finished dividing. You can tell this by changes that can be observed within the nucleus.  The main thing to note is that even within this area of rapid cell division,  most of the cells are not dividing.

Onion root tip cells in various phases of the cell cycle. source: wikipedia

If you were to count all of the non-dividing and dividing cells, and organize them into a pie chart, you’d wind up with something like the outer (mostly orange) circle in the image at right. That circle (and the smaller circle within it) represents the cell cycle: the series of events that take place within a cell as it divides from one cell into two.

The orange part of the circle, labeled “I” is interphase. This is phase in when the cell is not actively dividing. The period when the cell is actively dividing is the M phase.  As you can see, the M phase is much shorter than the interphase that preceded it.

How long are we talking about? In an onion root tip, the cells take about 12 hours to go through the entire cycle. In humans, skin cells reproduce themselves about once/day. In each case, M phase is a small fraction of the entire length of the cell cycle.

If you were to put down your microscope and biochemically study what’s happening during interphase, you’d see that interphase can be divided into three distinct subphases.

  • G1 is the growth phase. During G1, the newly born daughter cells increase in size, and are carrying out all of their normal metabolic activities.
  • S is the DNA replication phase. The “S” stands for synthesis (of DNA). During the S phase, each chromosome is duplicated into two sister chromatids. The image below, from the first section of this tutorial, represents what happens during S.
  • G2: this is a second growth phase. In G2, however, the growth involves synthesis of structures that make cell division possible.

Not all cells go through the entire cycle. Any specialized cell — muscle cells and nerve cells, for example — leave the cell cycle and enter into what’s called G0. Cells in G0 no longer divide. Your nerve cells are as old as you are. Certain stimuli, however, can induce a cell in G0 to reenter the cell cycle.

Finally, note that the M phase of the cell cycle can  also be subdivided. During mitosis, the cell’s nucleus divides. During cytokinesis, the mother cell splits apart into two daughter cells.

Take the quiz below on the phases of the cell cycle, and then we’ll get into the details of cell division.

4. A Cell Cycle Quiz

[qwiz random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Cell Cycle”]

[h]The Cell Cycle

[i]The following quiz is based upon this diagram

[q]Which number represents “M” phase?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]ID E=

[f]IFllcy4g4oCcMeKAnSBpc8KgJiM4MjIwO00mIzgyMjE7IHBoYXNlLCB3aGljaCBpbmNsdWRlcyBtaXRvc2lzIGFuZCBjeXRva2luZXNpcy4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqAmIzgyMjA7TSYjODIyMTsgcGhhc2UgaXMgZXZlcnl0aGluZyA8ZW0+ZXhjZXB0PC9lbT4gZm9yIGludGVycGhhc2UuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q]Which number represents interphase?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq Ay

[f]IFllcy4g4oCcMuKAnSBpc8KgaW50ZXJwaGFzZS4gVGhlIHZhc3QgbWFqb3JpdHkgb2YgdGhlwqB0aW1lIGluIHRoZSB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIGxpZmUgY3ljbGUgaXMgc3BlbnQgaW4gdGhpcyBwaGFzZS4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBJbnRlcnBoYXNlIGlzIHRoZSBsb25nZXN0IHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwgY3ljbGUuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q]Which number represents “G1” phase?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq Az

[f]IFllcy4g4oCcM+KAnSBpcyBHPHN1Yj4xPC9zdWI+wqBwaGFzZSwgdGhlIHBhcnQgb2YgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSBpbiB3aGljaCB0aGUgY2VsbCBpcyBhY3RpdmVseSBncm93aW5nLiBEdXJpbmcgRzEsIHRoZSBjZWxsIHN5bnRoZXNpemVzIHByb3RlaW5zIGFuZCBtUk5BcyBpbiBwcmVwYXJhdGlvbiBmb3IgdGhlIG5leHQgcGhhc2UgcGhhc2Ugb2YgdGhlIGN5Y2xlLCB0aGUgUyBwaGFzZS4=

[c]Kg==

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[q]Which number represents the phase in which the cell is growing, and producing proteins and RNAs in preparation for synthesizing new DNA?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq Az

[f]IFllcy4g4oCcM+KAnSBpcyBHPHN1Yj4xPC9zdWI+wqBwaGFzZSwgdGhlIHBhcnQgb2YgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSBpbiB3aGljaCB0aGUgY2VsbCBpcyBhY3RpdmVseSBncm93aW5nLiBEdXJpbmcgRzEsIHRoZSBjZWxsIHN5bnRoZXNpemVzIHByb3RlaW5zIGFuZCBtUk5BcyBpbiBwcmVwYXJhdGlvbiBmb3IgdGhlIG5leHQgcGhhc2UgcGhhc2Ugb2YgdGhlIGN5Y2xlLCB0aGUgUyBwaGFzZS4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuVGhpcyBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBjeWNsZSBpcyBhbHNvIHJlZmVycmVkIHRvIGFzIEc8c3ViPjE8L3N1Yj4uIEl0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIGZpcnN0IHBhcnQgb2YgaW50ZXJwaGFzZS48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q]Which number represents the S phase of the cell cycle?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A0

[f]IFllcy4gNMKgaXMgdGhlICYjODIyMDtTJiM4MjIxO8KgcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBwYXJ0IG9mIGludGVycGhhc2UgaW4gd2hpY2ggdGhlIGNlbGwgaXMgc3ludGhlc2l6aW5nIG5ldyBETkEu

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuVGhlIFMgcGhhc2Ugb2NjdXJzIGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgaW50ZXJwaGFzZS48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q]Which number most specifically represents the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell is synthesizing new DNA?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A0

[f]IFllcy4gNMKgaXMgdGhlICYjODIyMDtTJiM4MjIxO8KgcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBwYXJ0IG9mIGludGVycGhhc2UgaW4gd2hpY2ggdGhlIGNlbGwgaXMgc3ludGhlc2l6aW5nIG5ldyBETkEu

[c]Kg==

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[q]Which represents the G2 phase of the cell cycle?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A1

[f]IFllcy4gNcKgaXMgdGhlICYjODIyMDtHPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+JiM4MjIxO8KgcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBwYXJ0IG9mIGludGVycGhhc2UgaW4gd2hpY2ggdGhlIGNlbGzCoHByb2R1Y2luZyBtYXRlcmlhbHMgaW4gcHJlcGFyYXRpb24gZm9yIG1pdG9zaXMgYW5kIGN5dG9raW5lc2lzLg==

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIFRoZSBHPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+wqBwaGFzZSBpcyB0aGUgbGFzdCBwYXJ0IG9mIGludGVycGhhc2UuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q]Which represents mitosis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A2

[f]IFllcy4gNsKgaXPCoG1pdG9zaXMsIHRoZSBkaXZpc2lvbiBvZiB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIE1pdG9zaXMgb2NjdXJzIGFmdGVyIGludGVycGhhc2UuIEl0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIGZpcnN0IHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlICYjODIyMDtNJiM4MjIxOyBwaGFzZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCBjeWNsZS48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q]Which represents the part of the cycle in which sister chromatids are separated?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A2

[f]IFllcy4gNsKgaXPCoG1pdG9zaXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoZW7CoHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFyZSBzZXBhcmF0ZWQgZnJvbSBvbmUgYW5vdGhlci4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBTaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBhcmUgc2VwYXJhdGVkIGR1cmluZyBtaXRvc2lzLCB3aGljaCBvY2N1cnMgcmlnaHQgYWZ0ZXIgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSBlbmRzLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Highly specialized cells can leave the cell cycle and enter a phase called G0. Which number represents this?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A4

[f]IFllcy4gOCByZXByZXNlbnRzIGEgY2VsbCBsZWF2aW5nIHRoZSBjZWxsIGN5Y2xlIGFuZCBlbnRlcmluZyBHPHN1Yj4wPC9zdWI+Lg==

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBMb29rLCBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBmb3IgYcKgbmVydmUgY2VsbCwgYSBoaWdobHkgc3BlY2lhbGl6ZWQgY2VsbCB0aGF0IGhhcyBsZWZ0IHRoZSBjZWxsIGN5Y2xlIGFuZCBlbnRlcmVkIHRoZSBHPHN1Yj4wPC9zdWI+IHBoYXNlLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Sometimes, specialized cells that have left the cell cycle and entered the G0 phase can, if induced by the environment, reenter the cell cycle.  Which number represents this?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A5

[f]IFllcy4gOcKgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIHNwZWNpYWxpemVkIGNlbGzCoHJlLWVudGVyaW5nIHRoZSBjZWxsIGN5Y2xlLg==

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBMb29rLCBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBmb3IgYcKgbmVydmUgY2VsbCB0aGF0LCBkZXNwaXRlIGl0cyBzcGVjaWFsaXplZCByb2xlLCBpcyByZS1lbnRlcmluZyB0aGUgY2VsbCBjeWNsZS48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q]Which number in the diagram below represents cytokinesis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A3

[f]IFllcy4gN8KgcmVwcmVzZW50c8KgY3l0b2tpbmVzaXMsIG9yICYjODIyMDtjZWxsIHNwbGl0dGluZy4mIzgyMjE7

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBDeXRva2luZXNpcyBpcyB0aGUgbGFzdCBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsIGN5Y2xlLg==

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

5. Cell Division: Interphase, Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Now that we understand the cell cycle, let’s look at each part of the process in more detail. As we do, we’ll learn what happens in each phase of mitosis (the division of the nucleus).

While this process is continuous, it’s typically divided into several phases:

  1. Interphase
  2. Prophase
  3. Late Prophase/Prometaphase
  4. Metaphase
  5. Anaphase
  6. Telophase
  7. Cytokinesis

To help my student memorize the order of these phases, I have them memorize the sentence I Put My Apple There, Charlie. Note that this ignores late prophase/prometaphase but that doesn’t seem to cause any difficulty.

On top of that, here are two more mnemonic tricks

  1. During metaphase, the chromosomes are in the middle of the cell.
  2. During anaphase, the sister chromatids are pulled apart.

Let’s go.


5a. Interphase

Interphase

Interphase, you’ll remember, is by far the longest part of the cell cycle

During interphase, the nuclear membrane (2) is intact. Inside the nucleus, you can see the nucleolus (the cell’s ribosome factory). Sometimes, two nucleoli are present.

Within the nucleus are the cell’s chromosomes. During interphase, however, distinct chromosomes can’t be seen, but you know that they’re there, spread out within the nucleus (as indicated by “3.”) By the end of interphase, the chromosomes will have duplicated themselves.

In the cytoplasm is a region called a centrosome (1). The centrosome produces protein fibers called microtubules. As we’ll see below, these microtubule fibers have two functions. First, they move the chromosomes to the center of the cell so that the sister chromatids can be pulled apart. Second, they cause the cell to elongate so that it can be split apart into two daughter cells.


5b. Prophase

During prophase, several changes occur within the nucleus. First, the chromosomes (3) condense, and start to be distinctly visible. Once the chromosomes have condensed, you can see that each chromosome has been replicated, and now consists of two sister chromatids. Second, the nucleolus disappears. Third, the nuclear membrane (2) starts to disintegrate.

In the cytoplasm, the centrosomes  (1) start to migrate to the opposite ends of the cell. As they do, they start to synthesize microtubules, which radiate out from each centrosome. These arrays of microtubules that emerge from each centrosome are called asters (from the Latin root for “star”).

As prophase proceeds, additional changes occur. Some sources designate these changes as late prophase. Others use the term prometaphase, referring to the next phase of cell division.

Here are the key features of late prophase/prometaphase.

Late prophase/prometaphase

The centrosomes (1 and 5) have moved to opposite ends of the cell. These ends are called poles (like the North and South poles of the Earth: just imagine rotating the image at left by 90 degrees).

Each centrosome still has an aster of microtubules radiating from it (at 5), but the microtubules facing the middle of the cell now span the cell’s entire length. This creates a structure that’s called the mitotic spindle (or just “spindle,” or “spindle apparatus”), shown at “2.”

The nuclear membrane (3) has pretty much completely disintegrated.


5c. Metaphase

Metaphase

In metaphase, the spindle fibers move the chromosomes to the middle of the cell, a region referred to as the cell equator (again, imagine rotating this image by 90 degrees).

How does that happen? To begin with, let’s take a closer look at at one doubled chromosome.

In this photomicrograph, the sister chromatids are indicated by “1a” and “1b.” Connecting the two sister chromatids is a region that’s called a centromere, at “2.”

The drawing at left represents this doubled chromosome, and adds two more features. In addition to the sister chromatid (at “1”) and the centromere (at “4”), there’s a spindle fiber, shown at “3.” These fibers are composed of microtubules, a hollow fiber made of a protein called tubulin. The microtubules grab onto the sister chromatids at a protein “handle” called a kinetochore, indicated at “2.” A molecular tug of war between the spindle fibers at each pole of the cell winds up positioning the cell’s chromosomes in the middle of the cell, as shown in the figure of metaphase above.


5d. Anaphase

The tug of war between the spindle fibers continues, causing the sister chromatids that make up each doubled chromosome to split apart. This upgrades each sister chromatid into a full-fledged chromosome.

At the same time,  spindle fibers radiating from each centrosome interact with one another to elongate the cell. These spindle fibers, which aren’t moving chromosomes around, are shown at “7.”


5e. Telophase

During telophase, cell elongation caused by the non-kinetochore spindle fibers (which are not shown here) continues. The chromosomes spread out again, and can no longer  be seen as distinct bodies. A nuclear membrane (at “2”) forms around each of the nuclei. Within each nucleus, a nucleolus (“4”) forms.


5f. Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

During cytokinesis, the mother cell splits into two daughter cells.

In animal cells, a ring of fibers called microfilaments (at “1”) pull the membrane together (at “2”), ultimately dividing the mother cell into two separate daughter cells.

In plant cells, the Golgi complex sends vesicles filled with cellulose (at “1”) to the cell equator. Once these vesicles reach the equator, they release their cellulose, creating a cell plate (at “2”). Addition of more cellulose and other fibers lead to the formation of a new cell wall (at “3”) between the two daughter cells.

6. Quiz: Mechanisms of Mitosis

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisMechansisms”]

[h] Mechanisms of Mitosis.

[i]Biohaiku

Doubled Chromosomes

Two linked sister chromatids

In anaphase part

 

[q] The correct sequence of the phases of cell division and mitosis is

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2UsIHByb3BoYXNlLCB0ZWxvcGhhc2UsIGFuYXBoYXNlLCBjeXRva2luZXNpcw==

[c]IGN5dG9raW5lc2lzLCBtZXRhcGhhc2UsIHByb3BoYXNlLCB0ZWxvcGhhc2UsIGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZSwgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCBwcm9waGFzZSwgY3l0b2tpbmVzaXM=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNlLCBhbmFwaGFzZSwgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgY3l0b2tpbmVzaXMsIG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2UsIHByb3BoYXNlLCBtZXRhcGhhc2Us IGFuYXBoYXNlLCB0ZWxvcGhhc2UsIGN5dG9raW5lc2lz

[f]IFRoYXTigJlzIG5vdCBpdC4gSSBmaW5kIHRoYXQgdGhlIG1uZW1vbmljIOKAmEkgUHV0IE15IEFwcGxlIFRoZXJlLCBDaGFybGll4oCdIGhlbHBzIG1lIGtlZXAgdGhlIG9yZGVyIG9mIHRoZSBwaGFzZXMgc3RyYWlnaHQuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIHVzZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIHRvIGlkZW50aWZ5IHRoZSBjb3JyZWN0IHNlcXVlbmNlLg==

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[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIElmIHlvdSBldmVyIGhhdmUgdHJvdWJsZSByZW1lbWJlcmluZyBpbiB0aGUgZnV0dXJlLCBJIGZpbmQgdGhhdCB0aGUgbW5lbW9uaWMg4oCYSSBQdXQgTXkgQXBwbGUgVGhlcmUsIENoYXJsaWXigJ0gaGVscHMgbWUga2VlcCB0aGUgb3JkZXIgb2YgdGhlIHBoYXNlcyBzdHJhaWdodC48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a sister chromatid?

[c]ID E=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

[f]IEdvb2Qgam9iLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBhIGtpbmV0b2Nob3JlLiBUaGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIHRoZSBkb3VibGVkIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIHRoYXQgZW1lcmdlIGF0IHRoZSBlbmQgb2YgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwganVzdCBiZWZvcmUgbWl0b3NpcyBzdGFydHMuIEluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbSwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWQgaXMgdGhlIG1ham9yIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBzaG93bi4gVGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhhdCB3aGVuIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiBuZXh0IHRpbWUu

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycy4gVGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFyZSB0aGUgZG91YmxlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyB0aGF0IGVtZXJnZSBhdCB0aGUgZW5kIG9mIGludGVycGhhc2UsIGp1c3QgYmVmb3JlIG1pdG9zaXMgc3RhcnRzLiBJbiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0sIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkIGlzIHRoZSBtYWpvciBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUgc2hvd24uIFRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoYXQgd2hlbiB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24gbmV4dCB0aW1lLg==

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBjZW50cm9tZXJlLCB3aGljaCBpcyB3aGF0IGhvbGRzIHRoZSB0d28gc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgdG9nZXRoZXIuIFRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBhcmUgdGhlIGRvdWJsZWQgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgdGhhdCBlbWVyZ2UgYXQgdGhlIGVuZCBvZiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlLCBqdXN0IGJlZm9yZSBtaXRvc2lzIHN0YXJ0cy4gSW4gdGhpcyBkaWFncmFtLCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZCBpcyB0aGUgbWFqb3Igc3RydWN0dXJlIHNob3duLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB0aGF0IHdoZW4geW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIG5leHQgdGltZS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the centromere?

[c]IDE=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]ID Q=

[f]IFRoYXTigJlzIG5vdCBpdC4gTnVtYmVyIDEgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gb25lIG9mIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcy4gVGhlIGNlbnRyb21lcmUgaXMgd2hhdCBob2xkcyB0aGUgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyLiBLZWVwIHRoYXQgaW4gbWluZCB3aGVuIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiBhZ2Fpbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBhIGtpbmV0b2Nob3JlLiBUaGUgY2VudHJvbWVyZSBpcyB3aGF0IGhvbGRzIHRoZSB0d28gc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgdG9nZXRoZXIuIEtlZXAgdGhhdCBpbiBtaW5kIHdoZW4geW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGFnYWluLg==

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycy4gVGhlIGNlbnRyb21lcmUgaXMgd2hhdCBob2xkcyB0aGUgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyLiBLZWVwIHRoYXQgaW4gbWluZCB3aGVuIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiBhZ2Fpbi4=

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIE51bWJlciA0IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGNlbnRyb21lcmUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoYXQgaG9sZHMgdGhlIHR3byBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyB0b2dldGhlci48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a kinetochore?

[c]IDE=

[c]ID I=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLiBBIGtpbmV0b2Nob3JlIGlzIGxpa2UgYSBoYW5kbGUgdGhhdCB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgKHNob3duIGF0IDMpPHNwYW4gY2xhc3M9IkFwcGxlLWNvbnZlcnRlZC1zcGFjZSI+wqAgPC9zcGFuPmdyYWIgb250byBhcyB0aGV5IG1vdmUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgdG8gdGhlIGNlbnRlciBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCwgYW5kIHRoZW4gcHVsbCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXBhcnQuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgdHJ5IHRvIGlkZW50aWZ5IGEgcGFydCB0aGF0IGxvb2tzIGxpa2Ugb25lIG9mIHRoZXNlIGhhbmRsZXMu

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISBOdW1iZXIgMiBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBhIGtpbmV0b2Nob3JlLiBUaGUga2luZXRvY2hvcmUgaXMgbGlrZSBhIGhhbmRsZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycyBncmFiIG9udG8gYXMgdGhleSBtb3ZlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIHRvIHRoZSBjZW50ZXIgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwsIGFuZCB0aGVuIHB1bGwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFwYXJ0Lg==

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycy4gQSBraW5ldG9jaG9yZSBpcyBsaWtlIGEgaGFuZGxlIHRoYXQgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXJzIChzaG93biBhdCAzKTxzcGFuIGNsYXNzPSJBcHBsZS1jb252ZXJ0ZWQtc3BhY2UiPsKgIDwvc3Bhbj5ncmFiIG9udG8gYXMgdGhleSBtb3ZlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIHRvIHRoZSBjZW50ZXIgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwsIGFuZCB0aGVuIHB1bGwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFwYXJ0LiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIHRyeSB0byBpZGVudGlmeSBhIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIG9uZSBvZiB0aGVzZSBoYW5kbGVzLg==

[f]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

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the spindle fibers?

[c]IDE=

[c]IDI=

[c]ID M=

[c]IDQ=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLiBUaGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgYXJlIHRoZSDigJhzdHJpbmdz4oCZIHRoYXQgZ3JhYiBvbnRvIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBhbmQgcHVsbCB0aGVtIGFwYXJ0LiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHdoaWNoIGFycm93IGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIGEgcGFydCB0aGF0IGxvb2tzIG1vc3Qgc2ltaWxhciB0byBhIGdyb3VwIG9mIHN0cmluZ3Mu

[f]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

[f]IEF3ZXNvbWUuIE51bWJlciAzIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXJzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBjZW50cm9tZXJlLCB3aGljaCBpcyB3aGF0IGhvbGRzIHRoZSB0d28gc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgdG9nZXRoZXIuIFRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycyBhcmUgdGhlIOKAmHN0cmluZ3PigJkgdGhhdCBkbyB0aGlzIGdyYWJiaW5nIGFuZCBwdWxsaW5nLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHdoaWNoIGFycm93IGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIGEgcGFydCB0aGF0IGxvb2tzIG1vc3Qgc2ltaWxhciB0byBhIGdyb3VwIG9mIHN0cmluZ3MuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the spindle fibers?

[c]IDE=

[c]ID I=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

[c]IDU=

[f]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

[f]IE5pY2UhIFRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycyBhcmUgdGhlIOKAmHN0cmluZ3PigJkgKGFjdHVhbGx5LCBwcm90ZWluIG1pY3JvdHVidWxlcykgdGhhdCBmaXJzdCBwb3NpdGlvbiB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaW4gdGhlIGNlbnRlciBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCwgYW5kIHRoZW4gcHVsbCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXBhcnQu

[f]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

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBUaGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgYXJlIHRoZSDigJhzdHJpbmdz4oCZIChhY3R1YWxseSwgcHJvdGVpbiBtaWNyb3R1YnVsZXMpIHRoYXQ8c3BhbiBjbGFzcz0iQXBwbGUtY29udmVydGVkLXNwYWNlIj7CoCA8L3NwYW4+cG9zaXRpb24gdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGluIHRoZSBjZW50ZXIgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwsIGFuZCB0aGVuIHB1bGwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFwYXJ0LiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB0cnkgdG8gaWRlbnRpZnkgdGhlIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBsb29rcyBtb3N0IGxpa2UgYW4gYXJyYXkgb2Ygc3RyaW5ncy4=

[f]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

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the aster?

[c]IDE=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

[c]ID U=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZSAoYWxzbyBjYWxsZWQgdGhlIGNlbnRyaW9sZSkuIFRoZSBjZW50cmlvbGUgY3JlYXRlcyB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZS4gVGhlIGFzdGVyIGlzIGFuIGFycmF5IG9mIHNob3J0IG1pY3JvdHVidWxlcyB0aGF0IHJhZGlhdGVzIG91dCBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZW50cm9zb21lLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB0cnkgdG8gaWRlbnRpZnkgdGhpcyBhcnJheSBvZiBzaG9ydCBmaWJlcnMu

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgY2xvc2UuIE51bWJlciAyIGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycywgd2hpY2ggYXJlIGRpZmZlcmVudCBmcm9tIHRoZSBhc3RlciBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycyBhcmUgbG9uZ2VyLCBhbmQgc3RyZXRjaCBhY3Jvc3MgdGhlIGNlbGwuIFRoZSBhc3RlciBpcyBhbiBhcnJheSBvZiBzaG9ydCBtaWNyb3R1YnVsZXMgdGhhdCByYWRpYXRlcyBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZW50cm9zb21lLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB0cnkgdG8gaWRlbnRpZnkgdGhpcyBhcnJheSBvZiBzaG9ydCBmaWJlcnMu

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSwgd2hpY2ggaW4gdGhpcyBwaGFzZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpcyBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGluZy4gVGhlIGFzdGVyIGlzIGFuIGFycmF5IG9mIHNob3J0IG1pY3JvdHVidWxlcyB0aGF0IHJhZGlhdGVzIGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWUgKGJ1dCB3aGljaCwgdW5saWtlIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycywgZG9u4oCZdCBzdHJldGNoIGFjcm9zcyB0aGUgY2VsbCkuIE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHRyeSB0byBpZGVudGlmeSB0aGlzIGFycmF5IG9mIHNob3J0IGZpYmVycy4=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBUaGUgYXN0ZXIgaXMgYW4gYXJyYXkgb2Ygc2hvcnQgbWljcm90dWJ1bGVzIHRoYXQgcmFkaWF0ZXMgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZSAoYnV0IHdoaWNoLCB1bmxpa2UgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXJzLCBkb27igJl0IHN0cmV0Y2ggYWNyb3NzIHRoZSBjZWxsKS4gTmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgdHJ5IHRvIGlkZW50aWZ5IHRoaXMgYXJyYXkgb2Ygc2hvcnQgZmliZXJzLg==

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIE51bWJlciA1IGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIHRoZSBhc3RlciwgYW4gYXJyYXkgb2Ygc2hvcnQgbWljcm90dWJ1bGVzIHRoYXQgcmFkaWF0ZXMgb3V0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a chromosome?

[c]IDE=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]ID Q=

[c]IDU=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZSAod2hpY2ggZm9yIG91ciBwdXJwb3NlcywgaXMgcHJldHR5IG11Y2ggc3lub255bW91cyB3aXRoIOKAmGNlbnRyaW9sZeKAmSkuIFRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgdGhlIOKAmFjigJkgc2hhcGVkIHN0cnVjdHVyZXMuIFRoZXkgY29udGFpbiB0aGUgY2VsbOKAmXMgRE5BLCBhbmQgZGl2aWRpbmcgdGhlbSB1cCBpcyB0aGUgd2hvbGUgcHVycG9zZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLg==

[f]IE5vLCBOdW1iZXIgMiBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMuIFRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgdGhlIOKAmFjigJkgc2hhcGVkIHN0cnVjdHVyZXMuIFRoZXkgY29udGFpbiB0aGUgY2VsbOKAmXMgRE5BLCBhbmQgZGl2aWRpbmcgdGhlbSB1cCBpcyB0aGUgd2hvbGUgcHVycG9zZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzIGFuZCBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uLg==

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSwgd2hpY2ggaW4gdGhpcyBwaGFzZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpcyBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGluZy4gVGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSB0aGUg4oCYWOKAmSBzaGFwZWQgc3RydWN0dXJlcy4gVGhleSBjb250YWluIHRoZSBjZWxs4oCZcyBETkEsIGFuZCBkaXZpZGluZyB0aGVtIHVwIGlzIHRoZSB3aG9sZSBwdXJwb3NlIG9mIG1pdG9zaXMgYW5kIGNlbGwgZGl2aXNpb24u

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgTnVtYmVyIDQgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBUaGV5IGNvbnRhaW4gdGhlIGNlbGzigJlzIEROQSwgYW5kIGRpdmlkaW5nIHRoZW0gdXAgaXMgdGhlIHdob2xlIHB1cnBvc2Ugb2YgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbiBhbmQgbWl0b3Npcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgYXN0ZXIuIFRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgdGhlIOKAmFjigJkgc2hhcGVkIHN0cnVjdHVyZXMuIFRoZXkgY29udGFpbiB0aGXCoGNlbGzigJlzIEROQSwgYW5kIGRpdmlkaW5nIHRoZW0gdXAgaXMgdGhlIHdob2xlIHB1cnBvc2Ugb2YgbWl0b3NpcyBhbmQgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbi48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a centrosome?

[c]ID E=

[c]IDI=

[c]IDM=

[c]IDQ=

[c]IDU=

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgTnVtYmVyIDEgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gdGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWUuIFRoZSBjZW50cm9zb21lIGNyZWF0ZXMgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUuIFRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGlzIHRoZSBhcnJheSBvZiDigJhzdHJpbmdz4oCZIChhY3R1YWxseSwgcHJvdGVpbiBtaWNyb3R1YnVsZXMpIHRoYXQgZmlyc3QgcG9zaXRpb25zIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBpbiB0aGUgY2VudGVyIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLCBhbmQgdGhlbiBwdWxscyB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXBhcnQu

[f]IE5vLCBOdW1iZXIgMiBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMuIFRoZSBjZW50cm9zb21lIGlzIHRoZSBzb3VyY2Ugb2YgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgYW5kIGFzdGVyLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCBpZGVudGlmeSB0aGUgcGFydCB0aGF0IGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgaXTigJlzIHJhZGlhdGluZyBhbiBhcnJheSBvZiBmaWJlcnMu

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSwgd2hpY2ggaW4gdGhpcyBwaGFzZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpcyBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGluZy4gVGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWUgaXMgdGhlIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBhbmQgYXN0ZXIuIE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIGlkZW50aWZ5IHRoZSBwYXJ0IHRoYXQgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBpdOKAmXMgcmFkaWF0aW5nIGFuIGFycmF5IG9mIGZpYmVycy4=

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgTnVtYmVyIDQgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBUaGUgY2VudHJvc29tZSBpcyB0aGUgc291cmNlIG9mIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGFuZCBhc3Rlci4gTmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgaWRlbnRpZnkgdGhlIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIGl04oCZcyByYWRpYXRpbmcgYW4gYXJyYXkgb2YgZmliZXJzLg==

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgdmVyeSBjbG9zZS4gTnVtYmVyIDUgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gdGhlIGFzdGVyLiBUaGUgYXN0ZXIgcmFkaWF0ZXMgb3V0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWUuIE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHVzZSB0aGlzIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIHRvIGNob29zZSB0aGUgY29ycmVjdCBhbnN3ZXIuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the disintegrating nuclear membrane?

[c]IDE=

[c]IDI=

[c]ID M=

[c]IDQ=

[c]IDU=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZSAoYWxzbyBjYWxsZWQgdGhlIGNlbnRyaW9sZSkuIFRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lICh3aGljaCBpcyBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGluZyBkdXJpbmcgdGhpcyBwaGFzZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzKSBzdXJyb3VuZHMgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCB0aGUgWC1zaGFwZWQgc3RydWN0dXJlcyBpbiB0aGUgY2VudGVyIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==

[f]IE5vLCBOdW1iZXIgMiBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMuIFRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lICh3aGljaCBpcyBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGluZyBkdXJpbmcgdGhpcyBwaGFzZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzKSBzdXJyb3VuZHMgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCB0aGUgWC1zaGFwZWQgc3RydWN0dXJlcyBpbiB0aGUgY2VudGVyIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISBOdW1iZXIgMyBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSwgd2hpY2ggaW4gdGhpcyBwaGFzZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpcyBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGluZy4=

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMuIFRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lIHN1cnJvdW5kcyB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMu

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNSBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byB0aGUgYXN0ZXIuIFRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lICh3aGljaCBpcyBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGluZyBkdXJpbmcgdGhpcyBwaGFzZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzKSBzdXJyb3VuZHMgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCB0aGUgWC1zaGFwZWQgc3RydWN0dXJlcyBpbiB0aGUgY2VudGVyIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a the part that contains the DNA?

[c]MQ ==

[c]Mg==

[c]Mw==

[c]NA==

[f]R29vZCBqb2IuIE51bWJlciAxIGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMsIHdoaWNoIGNvbnRhaW5zIHRoZSBETkEsIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSBvZiBoZXJlZGl0eS4=

[f]Tm8uIE51bWJlciAyIGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIGEga2luZXRvY2hvcmUuIFRoZSBraW5ldG9jaG9yZXMgYXJlIGxpa2UgaGFuZGxlcyB0aGF0IHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycyB1c2UgdG8gc2VwYXJhdGUgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBBcyBhIGhpbnQsIGNvbnNpZGVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBjb250YWlucyB0aGUgRE5BIGlzIHRoZSBiaWdnZXN0IHRoaW5nIHNob3duIGluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbS4=

[f]wqBOby4gTnVtYmVyIDMgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMsIHdoaWNoIGFyZSBtYWRlIG9mIHByb3RlaW4gbWljcm90dWJ1bGVzLiBBcyBhIGhpbnQsIGNvbnNpZGVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBjb250YWlucyB0aGUgRE5BIGlzIHRoZSBiaWdnZXN0IHRoaW5nIHNob3duIGluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbS4=

[f]wqBOby4gTnVtYmVyIDQgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgY2VudHJvbWVyZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hhdCBob2xkcyB0aGUgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyLiBBcyBhIGhpbnQsIGNvbnNpZGVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBjb250YWlucyB0aGUgRE5BIGlzIHRoZSBiaWdnZXN0IHRoaW5nIHNob3duIGluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+

[q]In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the part that holds the two sister chromatids together?

[c]MQ==

[c]Mg==

[c]Mw==

[c]NA ==

[f]VGhhdCYjODIxNztzIG5vdCBpdC4gTnVtYmVyIDEgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gb25lIG9mIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcy4gVHJ5IHRvIGlkZW50aWZ5IGEgcGFydCB0aGF0IGNvbm5lY3RzIHRoaXMgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZCB0byB0aGUgb3RoZXIgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZC4=

[f]Tm8uIE51bWJlciAyIGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIGEga2luZXRvY2hvcmUuIFRyeSB0byBpZGVudGlmeSBhIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBjb25uZWN0cyB0aGUgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLiBUaGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIHRoZSBsYXJnZXN0IHN0cnVjdHVyZXMgc2hvd24gaW4gdGhpcyBkaWFncmFtLg==

[f]Tm8uIE51bWJlciAzIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXJzLiAuIFRyeSB0byBpZGVudGlmeSBhIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBjb25uZWN0cyB0aGUgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLiBUaGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIHRoZSBsYXJnZXN0IHN0cnVjdHVyZXMgc2hvd24gaW4gdGhpcyBkaWFncmFtLg==

[f]RXhhY3RseS4gTnVtYmVyIDQgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgY2VudHJvbWVyZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hhdCBob2xkcyB0aGUgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=

[q]In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the ‘handles’ that the spindle fibers grab on to as they move and then separate the sister chromatids?

[c]MQ==

[c]Mg ==

[c]Mw==

[c]NA==

[f]wqBOby4gTnVtYmVyIDEgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gb25lIG9mIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcy4gV2hhdCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgaXMgc29tZXRoaW5nIGVxdWl2YWxlbnQgdG8gYSBoYW5kbGUgdGhhdCB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgKHNob3duIGF0IDMpIMKgZ3JhYiBvbnRvIGFzIHRoZXkgbW92ZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyB0byB0aGUgY2VudGVyIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLCBhbmQgdGhlbiBwdWxsIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBhcGFydC4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCB0cnkgdG8gaWRlbnRpZnkgYSBwYXJ0IHRoYXQgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBvbmUgb2YgdGhlc2UgaGFuZGxlcy4=

[f]VGVycmlmaWMhIE51bWJlciAyIGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIGEga2luZXRvY2hvcmUuIFRoZSBraW5ldG9jaG9yZSBpcyBsaWtlIGEgaGFuZGxlIHRoYXQgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXJzIGdyYWIgb250byBhcyB0aGV5IG1vdmUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgdG8gdGhlIGNlbnRlciBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCwgYW5kIHRoZW4gcHVsbCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXBhcnQu

[f]Tm8uIE51bWJlciAzIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXJzLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBzb21ldGhpbmcgZXF1aXZhbGVudCB0byBhIGhhbmRsZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycyAoc2hvd24gYXQgMykgwqBncmFiIG9udG8gYXMgdGhleSBtb3ZlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIHRvIHRoZSBjZW50ZXIgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwsIGFuZCB0aGVuIHB1bGwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFwYXJ0LiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIHRyeSB0byBpZGVudGlmeSBhIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIG9uZSBvZiB0aGVzZSBoYW5kbGVzLg==

[f]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

[q]In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the protein microtubules that move and then separate the sister crhomatids?

[c]MQ==

[c]Mg==

[c]Mw ==

[c]NA==

[f]Tm8uIE51bWJlciAxIGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMsIHByb3RlaW4gbWljcm90dWJ1bGVzLCB3aGljaCBhcmUgdGhlICYjODIxNjtzdHJpbmdzJiM4MjE3OyB0aGF0IGdyYWIgb250byB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYW5kIHB1bGwgdGhlbSBhcGFydC4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCB0aGluayBhYm91dCB3aGljaCBhcnJvdyBpcyBwb2ludGluZyB0byBhIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBsb29rcyBtb3N0IHNpbWlsYXIgdG8gYSBncm91cCBvZiBzdHJpbmdzLg==

[f]Tm8uIE51bWJlciAyIGlzIHBvaW50aW5nIHRvIGEga2luZXRvY2hvcmUuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMsIHByb3RlaW4gbWljcm90dWJ1bGVzIHdoaWNoIGFyZSB0aGUgJiM4MjE2O3N0cmluZ3MmIzgyMTc7IHRoYXQgZ3JhYiBvbnRvIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyDCoChhdCB0aGUga2luZXRvY2hvcmUpIGFuZCBwdWxsIHRoZW0gYXBhcnQuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2hpY2ggYXJyb3cgaXMgcG9pbnRpbmcgdG8gYSBwYXJ0IHRoYXQgbG9va3MgbW9zdCBzaW1pbGFyIHRvIGEgZ3JvdXAgb2Ygc3RyaW5ncy4=

[f]wqBBd2Vzb21lLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycy4gVGhlc2UgZmliZXJzIGFyZSBwcm90ZWluIG1pY3JvdHVidWxlcyB0aGF0IG1hbmlwdWxhdGUgYW5kIHRoZW4gcHVsbCBhcGFydCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMu

[f]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[/qwiz]

7. Quiz: Phases of Mitosis

This quiz tests you about the phases of mitosis.

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisPhases”]

[h]Quiz: Phases of Mitosis.

[i]

 

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IGxhdGUgcHJvcGhhc2UvcHJvbWV0YXBoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFw aGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[c]IGN5dG9raW5lc2lz

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RpY2UgdGhhdCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwuIFRoZSDigJht4oCZIGluIHRoZSB3b3JkIOKAmG1pZGRsZeKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhpcyBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RpY2UgdGhhdCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwuIFRoZSDigJht4oCZIGluIHRoZSB3b3JkIOKAmG1pZGRsZeKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhpcyBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RpY2UgdGhhdCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwuIFRoZSDigJjigJht4oCZIGluIHRoZSB3b3JkIOKAmG1pZGRsZeKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhpcyBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhpcyBjZWxsIGlzIGluIG1ldGFwaGFzZSwgd2hpY2ggeW91IGNhbiB0ZWxsIGJ5IHRoZSBmYWN0IHRoYXQgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhbmFwaGFzZSwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFyZSBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQuIE5vdGljZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgc3RpbGwgZG91YmxlZCwgYW5kIHRoYXQgdGhleSBhcmUgaW4gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbC4gVGhlIOKAmOKAmG3igJkgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQg4oCYbWlkZGxl4oCZIGlzIGEgY2x1ZSB0byB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIHBoYXNlLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiB0ZWxvcGhhc2UsIHlvdeKAmWQgc2VlIG9uZSBlbG9uZ2F0ZWQgY2VsbCB3aXRoIHR3byBudWNsZWkuIEhlcmUsIHRoZXJl4oCZcyBubyBudWNsZXVzIGF0IGFsbC4gSW4gYWRkaXRpb24sIG5vdGljZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgc3RpbGwgZG91YmxlZCwgYW5kIHRoYXQgdGhleSBhcmUgaW4gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbC4gVGhlIOKAmG3igJkgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQg4oCYbWlkZGxl4oCZIGlzIGEgY2x1ZSB0byB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIHBoYXNlLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBjeXRva2luZXNpcywgdGhlIGNlbGwgaXMgY2xlYXJseSBzcGxpdHRpbmcgaW50byB0d28uIE5vdGljZSB0aGF0IGluIHRoaXMgY2VsbCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIHN0aWxsIGRvdWJsZWQsIGFuZCB0aGF0IHRoZXkgYXJlIGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwuIFRoZSDigJht4oCZIGluIHRoZSB3b3JkIOKAmG1pZGRsZeKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhpcyBwaGFzZS48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdpbGwgcmVwbGljYXRlIGl0cyBjaHJvbW9zb21lcy4=

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdpbGwgc3BsaXQgaW50byB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMu

[c]IFR3byBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lcyB3aWxsIGZvcm0gYXJvdW5kIGVhY2ggc2V0IG9mIGRhdWdodGVyIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLg==

[c]IFNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIH dpbGwgYmUgc3BsaXQgYXBhcnQu

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaGF2ZSBhbHJlYWR5IHJlcGxpY2F0ZWQgdGhlbXNlbHZlcy4gVGhhdOKAmXMgd2h5IHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBoYXZlIGFuIOKAmFjigJkgbGlrZSBhcHBlYXJhbmNlLiBOb3csIHRoZXJlIGFyZSBkb3VibGVkIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwuIFRoZXNlIGRvdWJsZWQgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgbmVlZCB0byBiZSBzZXBhcmF0ZWQuIFdoYXTigJlzIHRoZSBuZXh0IG1vc3QgbGlrZWx5IHN0ZXA/

[f]IE5vLiBFYWNoIGRhdWdodGVyIGNlbGwgd2lsbCBoYXZlIHRvIHJlZm9ybSBpdHMgbnVjbGV1cyBiZWZvcmUgdGhlIGNlbGwgY2FuIHNwbGl0LiBOb3csIHRoZXJlIGFyZSBkb3VibGVkIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwuIFRoZXNlIGRvdWJsZWQgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgbmVlZCB0byBiZSBzZXBhcmF0ZWQuIFdoYXTigJlzIHRoZSBuZXh0IG1vc3QgbGlrZWx5IHN0ZXA/

[f]IE5vLiBCZWZvcmUgdGhhdCBjYW4gaGFwcGVuLCB0aGUgZG91YmxlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBuZWVkIHRvIGJlIHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydC4gVGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhhdCB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhpcyBjZWxsIGlzIGluIG1ldGFwaGFzZSwgd2l0aCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBsaW5lZCB1cCBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBJbiB0aGUgbmV4dCBwaGFzZSwgYW5hcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycyB3aWxsIHNlcGFyYXRlIHRoZXNlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c]IGludGVy cGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gSW4gaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgdGhlIGNlbGzigJlzIG51Y2xlYXIgbWVtYnJhbmUgaXMgaW50YWN0LiBZb3UgY2FuIHNlZSB0aGUgbnVjbGVvbHVzLCBhbmQgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIHNwaW5kbGUu

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBwcm9waGFzZSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGNvbmRlbnNlLiBJbiB0aGlzIHBoYXNlLCB5b3UgY2Fu4oCZdCBzZWUgZGlzdGluY3QgY2hyb21vc29tZXMuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgbWFrZSBhbm90aGVyIGNob2ljZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgd291bGQgYmUgbGluZWQgdXAgYWxvbmcgdGhlIGNlbGwgZXF1YXRvci4gQSB3ZWxsIGRldmVsb3BlZCBzcGluZGxlIHdvdWxkIGJlIHZpc2libGUuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgbWFrZSBhbm90aGVyIGNob2ljZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB5b3Ugd291bGQgc2VlIHR3byBudWNsZWkgZm9ybWluZyB3aXRoaW4gb25lIGVsb25nYXRlZCBjZWxsLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIG1ha2UgYW5vdGhlciBjaG9pY2UuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] If the cell below is in G2 of interphase, what’s the next thing that will happen to it?

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdpbGwgcmVwbGljYXRlIGl0cyBjaHJvbW9zb21lcy4=

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdpbGwgc3BsaXQgaW50byB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMu

[c]IFR3byBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lcyB3aWxsIGZvcm0gYXJvdW5kIGVhY2ggc2V0IG9mIGRhdWdodGVyIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLg==

[c]IFNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHdpbGwgYmUgc3BsaXQgYXBhcnQu

[c]IFRoZSBETkEgd2lsbCBjb25kZW5zZSBpbn RvIGRpc3RpbmN0IGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBHMiBvZiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaGF2ZSBhbHJlYWR5IHJlcGxpY2F0ZWQgdGhlbXNlbHZlcy4gQnV0IHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgc3RpbGwgc3ByZWFkIG91dCB0aHJvdWdob3V0IHRoZSBudWNsZXVzLiBIb3cgd2lsbCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaGF2ZSB0byBjaGFuZ2UgZm9yIGNlbGwgZGl2aXNpb24gdG8gcHJvY2VlZD8=

[f]IE5vLiBNYW55IHRoaW5ncyB3aWxsIGhhdmUgdG8gaGFwcGVuIGJlZm9yZSB0aGUgY2VsbCBpcyByZWFkeSB0byBzcGxpdC4gT25lIG9mIHRoZXNlIHRoaW5ncyBoYXMgdG8gZG8gd2l0aCBjaGFuZ2luZyB0aGUgYXBwZWFyYW5jZSBhbmQgYXJyYW5nZW1lbnQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGzigJlzIEROQSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgb3JnYW5pemVkIGludG8gY2hyb21vc29tZXMu

[f]IE5vLiBXYXkgYmVmb3JlIHRoYXQgY2FuIGhhcHBlbiwgdGhlIGNlbGwgd2lsbCBuZWVkIHRvIGNoYW5nZSB0aGUgYXBwZWFyYW5jZSBhbmQgYXJyYW5nZW1lbnQgb2YgaXRzIEROQSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgb3JnYW5pemVkIGludG8gY2hyb21vc29tZXMu

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgZHVyaW5nIGFuYXBoYXNlLiBCZWZvcmUgd2UgY2FuIGV2ZW4gYXBwcm9hY2ggdGhpcyBzdGFnZSwgd2UgaGF2ZSB0byBvcmdhbml6ZSB0aGUgZHVwbGljYXRlZCBETkEgc28gdGhhdCBpdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLiBIb3cgd2lsbCB0aGF0IGhhcHBlbj8=

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkhIFRoYXQgaXMgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGR1cmluZyBwcm9waGFzZSwgYWxvbmcgd2l0aCB0aGUgZGlzYXBwZWFyYW5jZSBvZiB0aGUgbnVjbGVvbHVzLCBhbmQgdGhlIGRpc2ludGVncmF0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lcy48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3 BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[c]IGN5dG9raW5lc2lz

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2VsbOKAmXMgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyBpbnRhY3QuIFlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoZSBudWNsZW9sdXMsIGFuZCB0aGVyZeKAmXMgbm8gc3BpbmRsZS4=

[f]IFRoYXTigJlzIGNvcnJlY3QuPHNwYW4gY2xhc3M9IkFwcGxlLWNvbnZlcnRlZC1zcGFjZSI+wqAgPC9zcGFuPkluIHByb3BoYXNlLCBhcyB5b3UgY2FuIHNlZSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGNvbmRlbnNlLCB0aGUgbnVjbGVvbHVzIGRpc2FwcGVhcnMsIGFuZCB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZXMgc3RhcnQgdG8gbW92ZSBhd2F5IGZyb20gb25lIGFub3RoZXIu

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgd291bGQgYmUgbGluZWQgdXAgYWxvbmcgdGhlIGNlbGwgZXF1YXRvci4gQSB3ZWxsIGRldmVsb3BlZCBzcGluZGxlIHdvdWxkIGJlIHZpc2libGUuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgbWFrZSBhbm90aGVyIGNob2ljZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB5b3Ugd291bGQgc2VlIHR3byBudWNsZWkgZm9ybWluZyB3aXRoaW4gb25lIGVsb25nYXRlZCBjZWxsLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIG1ha2UgYW5vdGhlciBjaG9pY2Uu

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBjeXRva2luZXNpcywgdGhlIGNlbGwgaXMgY2xlYXJseSBzcGxpdHRpbmcgaW50byB0d28uIEhlcmXigJlzIGEgaGludDogd2XigJlyZSBpbiBhbiBlYXJseSBwaGFzZSBvZiBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uLCBidXQgbm90IHJpZ2h0IGF0IHRoZSBzdGFydC48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYX BoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2VsbOKAmXMgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyBpbnRhY3QuIFlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoZSBudWNsZW9sdXMsIGFuZCB0aGVyZeKAmXMgbm8gc3BpbmRsZS4gTm90ZSB0aGF0IGluIHRoaXMgY2VsbCwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGhhdmUgYmVlbiBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQuIFRoZSDigJhB4oCZIGluIOKAmGFwYXJ04oCZIGlzIGEgY2x1ZSB0byB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIHBoYXNlLg==

[f]IE5vLjxzcGFuIGNsYXNzPSJBcHBsZS1jb252ZXJ0ZWQtc3BhY2UiPsKgIDwvc3Bhbj5JbiBwcm9waGFzZSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGNvbmRlbnNlLCB0aGUgbnVjbGVvbHVzIGRpc2FwcGVhcnMsIGFuZCB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZXMgc3RhcnQgdG8gbW92ZSBhd2F5IGZyb20gb25lIGFub3RoZXIuIE5vdGUgdGhhdCBpbiB0aGlzIGNlbGwsIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBoYXZlIGJlZW4gcHVsbGVkIGFwYXJ0LiBUaGUg4oCYQeKAmSBpbiDigJhhcGFydOKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhpcyBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgd291bGQgYmUgbGluZWQgdXAgYWxvbmcgdGhlIGNlbGwgZXF1YXRvci4gQSB3ZWxsIGRldmVsb3BlZCBzcGluZGxlIHdvdWxkIGJlIHZpc2libGUuIE5vdGUgdGhhdCBpbiB0aGlzIGNlbGwsIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBoYXZlIGJlZW4gcHVsbGVkIGFwYXJ0LiBUaGUg4oCYQeKAmSBpbiDigJhhcGFydOKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhpcyBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBUaGlzIGNlbGwgaXMgaW4gYW5hcGhhc2UsIHdoaWNoIHlvdSBjYW4gdGVsbCBieSB0aGUgZmFjdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBoYXZlIGJlZW4gcHVsbGVkIGFwYXJ0Lg==

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB5b3Ugd291bGQgc2VlIHR3byBudWNsZWkgZm9ybWluZyB3aXRoaW4gb25lIGVsb25nYXRlZCBjZWxsLiBOb3RlIHRoYXQgaW4gdGhpcyBjZWxsLCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgaGF2ZSBiZWVuIHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydC4gVGhlIOKAmEHigJkgaW4g4oCYYXBhcnTigJkgaXMgYSBjbHVlIHRvIHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoaXMgcGhhc2UuPC9wPgo8cD7CoA==

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c]IFRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyB3aWxsIGxpbmUgdXAgaW4gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbC4=

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdpbGwgc3BsaXQgaW50byB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMu

[c]IEEgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSB3aWxsIGZvcm0gYXJvdW5k IGVhY2ggc2V0IG9mIGRhdWdodGVyIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLg==

[c]IFRoZSBETkEgd2lsbCBiZSBkdXBsaWNhdGVkLg==

[f]IE5vLiBBcyB5b3UgY2FuIHNlZSBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGhhdmUgYWxyZWFkeSBiZWVuIHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydC4gTW92aW5nIHRoZW0gdG8gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSB3b3VsZCBsaXRlcmFsbHkgYmUgYSBzdGVwIGJhY2t3YXJkcy4gVGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2hlcmUgeW91IGZpbmQgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaW4gYSBtYXR1cmUgY2VsbCwgYW5kIHlvdeKAmWxsIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gZmlndXJlIG91dCB0aGUgYW5zd2VyIHRvIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24gd2hlbiB5b3Ugc2VlIGl0IGFnYWluLg==

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgdGhhdOKAmXMgY2xvc2UuIEluIGJldHdlZW4gc3BsaXR0aW5nIGFwYXJ0IHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcywgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hhdCB5b3Ugc2VlIGhlcmUsIGFuZCBkaXZpc2lvbiBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCwgaXMgb25lIG1vcmUgc3RhZ2UuIFRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHdoZXJlIHlvdSBmaW5kIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGluIGEgbWF0dXJlIGNlbGwsIGFuZCB5b3XigJlsbCBiZSBhYmxlIHRvIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgdGhlIGFuc3dlciB0byB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIHdoZW4geW91IHNlZSBpdCBhZ2Fpbi4=

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEFmdGVyIGFuYXBoYXNlLCBkdXJpbmcgd2hpY2ggdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGhhdmUgYmVlbiBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQsIHRoZSBuZXh0IHN0ZXAgd291bGQgYmUgdG8gcmUtZm9ybSBuZXcgbnVjbGVpLCB3aXRoIG1lbWJyYW5lcyBzdXJyb3VuZGluZyB0aGUgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2hyb21vc29tZXMu

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IGhhcHBlbmVkIGxvbmcgYWdvLCBkdXJpbmcgdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlLiBBZnRlciBzcGxpdHRpbmcgYXBhcnQgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLCB3aGljaCBpcyB3aGF0IHlvdSBzZWUgaGVyZSwgd2hhdCB3b3VsZCBoYXZlIHRvIGhhcHBlbj8gVGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2hlcmUgeW91IGZpbmQgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaW4gYSBtYXR1cmUgY2VsbCwgYW5kIHlvdeKAmWxsIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gZmlndXJlIG91dCB0aGUgYW5zd2VyIHRvIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24gd2hlbiB5b3Ugc2VlIGl0IGFnYWluLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[c]IGN5dG9r aW5lc2lz

[f]IE5vLiBJbnRlcnBoYXNlIGlzIHRoZSB2ZXJ5IGJlZ2lubmluZyBvZiB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBvZiBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uLCBhbmQgbWFueSB0aGluZ3MgaGF2ZSB0byBoYXBwZW4gYmVmb3JlIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIHJlYWR5IHRvIHNwbGl0IGludG8gdHdvLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIGNob29zZSBhIHBoYXNlIGNsb3NlciB0byB0aGUgZW5kIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5vLjxzcGFuIGNsYXNzPSJBcHBsZS1jb252ZXJ0ZWQtc3BhY2UiPsKgIDwvc3Bhbj5JbiBhIGNlbGwgaW4gcHJvcGhhc2UsIHlvdeKAmWQgYmUgYWJsZSB0byBzZWUgZGlzdGluY3QgY2hyb21vc29tZXMuIEFuZCB5b3Ugd291bGRu4oCZdCBzZWUgYSBjZWxsIHRoYXTigJlzIGFib3V0IHRvIHNwbGl0IGludG8gdHdvIGRhdWdodGVyIGNlbGxzLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIGNob29zZSBhIG11Y2ggbGF0ZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgd291bGQgYmUgbGluZWQgdXAgYWxvbmcgdGhlIGNlbGwgZXF1YXRvci4gQWRkaXRpb25hbGx5LCBhIG1ldGFwaGFzZSBjZWxsIHdvdWxkIG5vdCBiZSBzcGxpdHRpbmcgaW50byB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIGEgcGhhc2UgdGhhdOKAmXMgYXQgdGhlIGVuZCBvZiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhbmFwaGFzZSwgeW914oCZZCBzZWUgYSBzaW5nbGUgY2VsbCBpbiB3aGljaCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgaGFkIGp1c3QgYmVlbiBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQuIEJ1dCB0aGUgY2VsbCB3b3VsZCBiZSBhbG9uZyB3YXkgZnJvbSBzcGxpdHRpbmcgaW50byB0d28uIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIGEgcGhhc2UgdGhhdOKAmXMgY2xvc2UgdG8gdGhlIGVuZCBvZiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4=

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgdmVyeSBjbG9zZS4gQSB0ZWxvcGhhc2UgY2VsbCBoYXMgYWxyZWFkeSBmb3JtZWQgdHdvIG5ldyBudWNsZWkuIFdoYXQgd291bGQgaGF2ZSB0byBoYXBwZW4gdG8gdGhpcyBjZWxsIGZvciBpdCB0byBmb3JtIHR3byBkYXVnaHRlciBjZWxscz8gTmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgaWYgeW91IGNhbiB0aGluayBvZiB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgbGFzdCBwaGFzZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbiBwcm9jZXNzLCB5b3XigJlsbCBoYXZlIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIu

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISBUaGlzIGNlbGwgaXMgaW5kZWVkIHVuZGVyZ29pbmcgY3l0b2tpbmVzaXMsIGFuZCBpcyBhYm91dCB0byBzcGxpdCBpbnRvIHR3byBkYXVnaHRlciBjZWxscy48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNlIChlYXJseSk=

[c]IGxhdGUgcHJvcGhhc2 UvcHJvbWV0YXBoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2VsbOKAmXMgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyBpbnRhY3QuIFlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoZSBudWNsZW9sdXMsIGFuZCB0aGVyZeKAmXMgbm8gc3BpbmRsZS4gVGhpcyBjZWxsIGlzIGp1c3QgYWJvdXQgdG8gYmUgaW4gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLiBVc2UgdGhhdCBjbHVlLCBhbmQgbmV4dCB0aW1lIGNob29zZSBhbm90aGVyIGFuc3dlci4=

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgdmVyeSBjbG9zZS4gSW4gYSBjZWxsIGluIGVhcmx5IHByb3BoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZXMgd291bGQgc3RpbGwgYmUgY2xvc2UgdG9nZXRoZXIsIGFuZCBhIGNvbXBsZXRlIHNwaW5kbGUgd291bGQgbm90IGhhdmUgeWV0IGZvcm1lZC4gV2hhdCBwaGFzZSB3b3VsZCBmb2xsb3c/

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIFRoaXMgY2VsbCBpbiBsYXRlIHByb3BoYXNlLiBZb3UgY2FuIHRlbGwgdGhpcyBieSB0aGUgZmFjdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lIGhhcyBhbG1vc3QgY29tcGxldGVseSBkaXNpbnRlZ3JhdGVkLCBieSB0aGUgbmVhcmx5IGZ1bGx5IGZvcm1lZCBzcGluZGxlLCBhbmQgYnkgdGhlIG1vdmVtZW50IG9mIHRoZSBkb3VibGVkIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIHRvd2FyZCB0aGUgY2VsbCBlcXVhdG9yLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhIG1ldGFwaGFzZSBjZWxsLCB5b3XigJlkIHNlZSB0aGUgZG91YmxlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBsaW5lZCB1cCBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBJbiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0sIHRoZXnigJlyZSBiZWluZyBwdWxsZWQgdG93YXJkIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUsIGJ1dCB0aGV54oCZcmUgbm90IHRoZXJlIHlldC4gV2hpY2ggcGhhc2Ugd291bGQgaW1tZWRpYXRlbHkgcHJlY2VkZSBtZXRhcGhhc2U/

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhbmFwaGFzZSwgeW914oCZZCBzZWUgYSBzaW5nbGUgY2VsbCBpbiB3aGljaCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgaGFkIGp1c3QgYmVlbiBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQuIEluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBzdGlsbCBkb3VibGVkLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUsIGNob29zZSBhIHBoYXNlIHRoYXTigJlzIGVhcmxpZXIgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3MuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c]IFRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyB3aWxsIGxpbmUgdX AgaW4gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbC4=

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdpbGwgc3BsaXQgaW50byB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMu

[c]IFR3byBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lcyB3aWxsIGZvcm0gYXJvdW5kIGVhY2ggc2V0IG9mIGRhdWdodGVyIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLg==

[c]IFNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHdpbGwgYmUgc3BsaXQgYXBhcnQu

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBhbHJlYWR5IGhvb2tlZCBvbnRvIHNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXJzLiBOb3cgdGhlIGNlbGwgbmVlZHMgdG8gbW92ZSB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgdG8gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiBjZWxsLCBzbyB0aGF0IHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBjYW4gYmUgcHVsbGVkIGFwYXJ0Lg==

[f]IE5vLiBNYW55IHRoaW5ncyB3aWxsIGhhdmUgdG8gaGFwcGVuIGJlZm9yZSB0aGUgY2VsbCBpcyByZWFkeSB0byBzcGlsdC4gT25lIG9mIHRoZXNlIHRoaW5ncyBoYXMgdG8gZG8gd2l0aCBwb3NpdGlvbmluZyB0aGUgZG91YmxlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBzbyB0aGF0IHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBjYW4gYmUgcHVsbGVkIGFwYXJ0LiBIb3cgY2FuIHRoYXQgaGFwcGVuPw==

[f]IE5vLiBXYXkgYmVmb3JlIHRoYXQgY2FuIGhhcHBlbiwgdGhlIGNlbGwgbmVlZHMgdG8gc2VwYXJhdGUgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIG1ha2luZyB1cCB0aGUgZG91YmxlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcy4gSG93IGNhbiB0aGUgY2VsbCBwb3NpdGlvbiB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgc28gdGhhdCB0aGV5IGNhbiBiZSBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQ/

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgZHVyaW5nIGFuYXBoYXNlLiBXaGF0IGhhcyB0byBoYXBwZW4gaW1tZWRpYXRlbHkgYmVmb3JlIGFuYXBoYXNlPzwvcD4KPHA+

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9w aGFzZQ==

[c]IGN5dG9raW5lc2lz

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhIGxvdCBvZiB3YXlzLCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBhbiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlIGNlbGwsIGV4Y2VwdCBmb3IgdGhhdCBpdCBoYXMgdHdvIHN0cmFuZ2UgZmVhdHVyZXM6IHR3byBudWNsZWksIGFuZCBhIHZlcnkgZWxvbmdhdGVkIHNoYXBlLiBUaGUgcHJlc2VuY2Ugb2YgdHdvIG51Y2xlaSBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgaXMgY2xvc2UgdG8gdGhlIGVuZCBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbiBwcm9jZXNzIChhbmQgbm90IGF0IHRoZSBiZWdpbm5pbmcpLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhIHByb3BoYXNlIGNlbGwsIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyB3b3VsZCBoYXZlIGNvbmRlbnNlZCBpbnRvIHRoZWlyIGNoYXJhY3RlcmlzdGljIOKAmFjigJkgc2hhcGUsIHdoaWNoIHlvdSBkb27igJl0IHNlZSBoZXJlLiBBbHNvLCB5b3UgZG8gc2VlIHR3byBudWNsZWksIGluZGljYXRpbmcgdGhhdCB0aGUgc3RhZ2UgdGhhdCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgaXMgaW4gaXMgY2xvc2UgdG8gdGhlIGVuZCBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbiBwcm9jZXNzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhIG1ldGFwaGFzZSBjZWxsLCB5b3XigJlkIHNlZSB0aGUgZG91YmxlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBsaW5lZCB1cCBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBUaGUgcHJlc2VuY2Ugb2YgdHdvIG51Y2xlaSBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgaXMgY2xvc2UgdG8gdGhlIGVuZCBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbiBwcm9jZXNzIChhbmQgbm90IGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUuKQ==

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgY2xvc2UuIEluIGFuYXBoYXNlLCB5b3XigJlkIHNlZSBhIHNpbmdsZSBjZWxsIGluIHdoaWNoIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBoYWQganVzdCBiZWVuIHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydC4gWW91IHdvdWxkIG5vdCBzZWUgdGhlIHR3byBudWNsZWkgd2hpY2ggeW91IHNlZSBpbiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0uIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIHRoZSBwaGFzZSBqdXN0IGFmdGVyIGFuYXBoYXNlLg==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhpcyBjZWxsIGlzIGluIHRlbG9waGFzZSwgd2hpY2ggeW91IGNhbiB0ZWxsIGJ5IHRoZSBwcmVzZW5jZSBvZiB0d28gbnVjbGVpIGluIG9uZSwgZWxvbmdhdGVkIGNlbGwu

[f]IE5vLsKgSW4gY3l0b2tpbmVzaXMsIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIGFjdHVhbGx5IGRpdmlkaW5nIGludG8gdHdvLiBDaG9vc2UgYSBzbGlnaHRsecKgZWFybGllciBwaGFzZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c]IFRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyB3aWxsIGJlIHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydC4=

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdpbGwgc3BsaXQgaW 50byB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMu

[c]IFRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyB3aWxsIG1vdmUgdG8gdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbC4=

[c]IFRoZSBETkEgd2lsbCBiZSBkdXBsaWNhdGVkLg==

[f]IE5vLiBBcyB5b3UgY2FuIHNlZSBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgbmV3IG51Y2xlaSBhcmUgcmVmb3JtaW5nLiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgaGF2ZSBhbHJlYWR5IGJlZW4gc3BsaXQgYXBhcnQuIEhlcmUgeW91IHNlZSBvbmUgZWxvbmdhdGVkIGNlbGwsIHdpdGggdHdvIG51Y2xlaS4gRm9yIHRoZSBuZXh0IHN0ZXAsIGFzayB5b3Vyc2VsZiB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24sIOKAmFdoYXQgd2lsbCBoYXZlIHRvIGhhcHBlbiB0byB0aGlzIGNlbGwgaW4gb3JkZXIgdG8gbWFrZSBpdCBpbnRvIHR3byBkYXVnaHRlciBjZWxscz/igJk=

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIEFmdGVyIHRlbG9waGFzZSwgd2hlcmUgeW91IHNlZSBvbmUgZWxvbmdhdGVkIGNlbGwgd2l0aCB0d28gbnVjbGVpLCB0aGUgbmV4dCBzdGVwIHdvdWxkIGJlIHRvIGRpdmlkZSB0aGUgY2VsbCBpbnRvIHR3by4=

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHdvdWxkIGJlIG1vdmluZyBiYWNrd2FyZHMsIHRvd2FyZCBtZXRhcGhhc2UuIEhlcmUgeW91IHNlZSBvbmUgZWxvbmdhdGVkIGNlbGwsIHdpdGggdHdvIG51Y2xlaS4gRm9yIHRoZSBuZXh0IHN0ZXAsIGFzayB5b3Vyc2VsZiB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24sIOKAmFdoYXQgd2lsbCBoYXZlIHRvIGhhcHBlbiB0byB0aGlzIGNlbGwgaW4gb3JkZXIgdG8gbWFrZSBpdCBpbnRvIHR3byBkYXVnaHRlciBjZWxscz/igJk=

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IGhhcHBlbmVkIGxvbmcgYWdvLCBkdXJpbmcgdGhlIG1pZGRsZSBvZiBpbnRlcnBoYXNlLiBIZXJlIHlvdSBzZWUgb25lIGVsb25nYXRlZCBjZWxsLCB3aXRoIHR3byBudWNsZWkuIEZvciB0aGUgbmV4dCBzdGVwLCBhc2sgeW91cnNlbGYgdGhlIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCDigJhXaGF0IHdpbGwgaGF2ZSB0byBoYXBwZW4gdG8gdGhpcyBjZWxsIGluIG9yZGVyIHRvIG1ha2UgaXQgaW50byB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHM/4oCZ

[x]

If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below

[restart]

[/qwiz]

8. Another Mitosis Quiz

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-MitosisQuiz5″]

[h]Another mitosis quiz

[i]

[q] When do chromosomes first condense and become visible?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3 BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBzcHJlYWQgb3V0IGFuZCBjYW7igJl0IGJlIHNlZW4gZGlzdGluY3RseS4=

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIER1cmluZyBwcm9waGFzZSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGNvbmRlbnNlIGFuZCBiZWNvbWUgdmlzaWJsZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIGNvbmRlbnNlZCBhbmQgdmlzaWJsZSwgYnV0IHRoaXMgY29uZGVuc2F0aW9uIGhhcHBlbnMgZWFybGllciBpbiB0aGUgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbiBwcm9jZXNzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgY29uZGVuc2VkIGFuZCB2aXNpYmxlLCBidXQgdGhpcyBjb25kZW5zYXRpb24gaGFwcGVucyBlYXJsaWVyIGluIHRoZSBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgb25jZSBnYWluIHNwcmVhZCBvdXQgaW4gdGhlIGRhdWdodGVyIG51Y2xlaSwgYW5kIG5vIGxvbmdlciBhcmUgZGlzdGluY3QgYW5kIHZpc2libGUuIENvbmRlbnNhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgbXVjaCBlYXJsaWVyIGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q] When are the sister chromatids pulled apart?

[c]IGN5dG9raW5lc2lz

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYX BoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgY3l0b2tpbmVzaXMsIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgZnVsbC1mbGVkZ2VkIHNpbmdsZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcywgZWFjaCBlbmNsb3NlZCBpbiBhIG51Y2xldXMuIFRoZSBzZXBhcmF0aW9uIG9mIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGhhcHBlbnMgZWFybGllciBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4gVGhlIOKAmGHigJkgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQg4oCYYXBhcnTigJkgaXMgYSBjbHVlIHRvIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdG8gdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBhcmUgc3RpbGwgYXR0YWNoZWQgYnkgYSBjZW50cm9tZXJlLiBUaGUgc2VwYXJhdGlvbiBvZiBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBoYXBwZW5zIGxhdGVyIGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzLiBUaGUg4oCYYeKAmSBpbiB0aGUgd29yZCDigJhhcGFydOKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIGFuc3dlciB0byB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIHN0aWxsIGF0dGFjaGVkIGJ5IGEgY2VudHJvbWVyZS4gVGhlIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gb2Ygc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgaGFwcGVucyBsYXRlciBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4gVGhlIOKAmGHigJkgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQg4oCYYXBhcnTigJkgaXMgYSBjbHVlIHRvIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdG8gdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBJdOKAmXMgZHVyaW5nIGFuYXBoYXNlIHRoYXQgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgZ2V0IHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydC4gSWYgeW91IGV2ZXIgaGF2ZSB0cm91YmxlIHJlbWVtYmVyaW5nLCBqdXN0IGNvbm5lY3QgdGhlIOKAmGHigJkgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQg4oCYYXBhcnTigJkgdG8gdGhlIOKAmGHigJkgaW4g4oCYYW5hcGhhc2Uu4oCZ

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgaGF2ZSBhbHJlYWR5IGJlZW4gcHVsbGVkIGFwYXJ0LCBhbmQsIGFzIGZ1bGwtZmxlZGdlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcywgYXJlIGJlaW5nIGVuY2xvc2VkIGluIG5ldyBudWNsZWkuIFRoZSBzZXBhcmF0aW9uIG9mIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGhhcHBlbnMgZWFybGllciBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4gVGhlIOKAmGHigJkgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQg4oCYYXBhcnTigJkgaXMgYSBjbHVlIHRvIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdG8gdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] Transmission of hereditary information is associated with

[c]IGNlbnRyb3NvbWVz

[c]IGNocm9tb3 NvbWVzLg==

[c]IGNlbnRyb21lcmVzLg==

[c]IHJpYm9zb21lcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBDZW50cm9zb21lcyBhcmUgcmVzcG9uc2libGUgZm9yIGNyZWF0aW5nIGEgc3BpbmRsZSB0aGF0IHB1bGxzIGFwYXJ0IGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCBidXQgdGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWVzIGFyZW7igJl0IGRpcmVjdGx5IGNvbm5lY3RlZCB3aXRoIHRyYW5zbWl0dGluZyBoZXJlZGl0YXJ5IGluZm9ybWF0aW9uLg==

[f]IFllcy4gQ2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBsaW5lYXIgc3RyaW5ncyBvZiBETkEgdGhhdCBob2xkIGFuZCB0cmFuc21pdCBoZXJlZGl0YXJ5IGluZm9ybWF0aW9uLg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY2VudHJvbWVyZXMgYXJlIHJlZ2lvbnMgb2YgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgdGhhdCBwbGF5IHRoZSBrZXkgcm9sZSBvZiBob2xkaW5nIHRvZ2V0aGVyIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBSaWJvc29tZXMgYXJlIGtleSBpbiB0cmFuc2xhdGluZyBoZXJlZGl0YXJ5IGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGR1cmluZyBwcm90ZWluIHN5bnRoZXNpcywgYnV0IHRoZSBkb27igJl0IHRyYW5zbWl0IHRoYXQgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24uPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] The longest period of a cell’s life cycle is:

[c]IFByb3BoYXNl

[c]IFRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[c]IEludGVy cGhhc2U=

[c]IEFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IE1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgb2YgdGhlIHBoYXNlcyBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpbmNsdWRpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UsIG1ha2UgdXAgb25seSBhIHNtYWxsIHBvcnRpb24gb2YgdGhlIGNlbGzigJlzIGxpZmUgY3ljbGUuIFdoYXQgcHJlY2VkZXMgbWl0b3Npcz8=

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgb2YgdGhlIHBoYXNlcyBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpbmNsdWRpbmcgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCBtYWtlIHVwIG9ubHkgYSBzbWFsbCBwb3J0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxs4oCZcyBsaWZlIGN5Y2xlLiBXaGF0IHByZWNlZGVzIG1pdG9zaXM/

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIEludGVycGhhc2UgaXMgYnkgZmFyIHRoZSBsb25nZXN0IHBlcmlvZCBvZiBhIGNlbGzigJlzIGxpZmUgY3ljbGUuIEl04oCZcyBNVUNIIGxvbmdlciB0aGFuIGFsbCBvZiB0aGUgc3RhZ2VzIG9mIG1pdG9zaXMgY29tYmluZWQu

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgb2YgdGhlIHBoYXNlcyBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpbmNsdWRpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UsIG1ha2UgdXAgb25seSBhIHNtYWxsIHBvcnRpb24gb2YgdGhlIGNlbGzigJlzIGxpZmUgY3ljbGUuIFdoYXQgcHJlY2VkZXMgbWl0b3Npcz8=

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgb2YgdGhlIHBoYXNlcyBvZiBtaXRvc2lzLCBpbmNsdWRpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCBtYWtlIHVwIG9ubHkgYSBzbWFsbCBwb3J0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxs4oCZcyBsaWZlIGN5Y2xlLiBXaGF0IHByZWNlZGVzIG1pdG9zaXM/PC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] In an animal cell, when would a ring of microfilaments be pulling in the membrane as the cell divides into two daughter cells?

[c]IGN5dG9r aW5lc2lz

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIER1cmluZyBjeXRva2luZXNpcywgYW4gYW5pbWFsIGNlbGwgZGl2aWRlcyBpbnRvIHR3byBieSBwaW5jaGluZyBpbiBpdHMgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGFuZCBzZXBhcmF0aW5nIHRoZSBjZWxsIGludG8gdHdvIGRhdWdodGVyIGNlbGxzLCBlYWNoIHdpdGggZnVsbCBzZXQgb2YgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaW5zaWRlIGEgbmV3bHkgZm9ybWVkIG51Y2xldXMu

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIGEgbG9uZyB3YXkgZnJvbSBkaXZpZGluZyBpbnRvIHR3byBkYXVnaHRlciBjZWxscy4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCBjaG9vc2UgYSBsYXRlciBwaGFzZSBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2VsbCBpcyBhYm91dCBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uIHByb2Nlc3MuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgcGhhc2Uu

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIHB1bGxpbmcgYXBhcnQgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHRvIGZvcm0gdHdvIG5ldyBjb21wbGV0ZSBzZXRzIG9mIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBCdXQgaXTigJlzIHN0aWxsIG5vdCBxdWl0ZSByZWFkeSB0byBkaXZpZGUuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuIER1cmluZyB0ZWxvcGhhc2UsIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCBhcmUgYmVpbmcgZW5jbG9zZWQgaW4gbmV3IG51Y2xlaS4gRGl2aXNpb24gaW50byB0d28gY2VsbHMgd291bGQgaW1tZWRpYXRlbHkgZm9sbG93IHRoaXMgc3RhZ2UuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] When does the nucleolus – the site of ribosome assembly – disappear?

[c]IHByb3 BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IFRoYXTigJlzIHJpZ2h0LiBUaGUgbnVjbGVvbHVzIGRpc2FwcGVhcnMgZHVyaW5nIHByb3BoYXNlLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgbnVjbGVvbHVzIGhhcyBhbHJlYWR5IGRpc2FwcGVhcmVkLiBDaG9vc2UgYW4gZWFybGllciBwaGFzZSBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBudWNsZW9sdXMgaGFzIGFscmVhZHkgZGlzYXBwZWFyZWQuIENob29zZSBhbiBlYXJsaWVyIHBoYXNlIGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB0aGUgbnVjbGVvbHVzIHJlYXBwZWFycyBpbiBlYWNoIG9mIHRoZSB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgbnVjbGVpLiBDaG9vc2UgYSBtdWNoIGVhcmxpZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3MuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] Cytokinesis refers to the division of the:

[c]IEN5dG9w bGFzbQ==

[c]IE51Y2xldXM=

[c]IE1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYQ==

[c]IENocm9tb3NvbWVz

[f]IE5pY2UuIER1cmluZyBjeXRva2luZXNpcywgdGhlIGNlbGwgc3BsaXRzIGluIHR3bywgZGl2aWRpbmcgdXAgdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSAoYW5kIHRoZSBlbnRpcmUgY2VsbCku

[f]IE5vLiBEaXZpc2lvbiBvZiB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cyBpcyBsaW1pdGVkIHRvIHRoZSBldmVudHMgb2YgbWl0b3Npcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBSZWxhdGVkIHRvIHRoZWlyIGFtYXppbmcgc3RhdHVzIGFzIHByYWN0aWNhbGx5IGluZGVwZW5kZW50IG9yZ2FuaXNtcyB0aGF0IGxpdmUgaW5zaWRlIG91ciBjZWxscywgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiBpcyB0YWtlbiBjYXJlIG9mIGJ5IHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEgdGhlbXNlbHZlcywgd2hvIGNvbnRpbnVlIHRvIHJlcHJvZHVjZSBpbiBtdWNoIHRoZSBzYW1lIHdheSBhcyB0aGVpciBiYWN0ZXJpYWwgYW5jZXN0b3JzIGRpZCwgYmlsbGlvbnMgb2YgeWVhcnMgYWdvLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEaXZpc2lvbiBvZiB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgb2NjdXJzIGR1cmluZyBtaXRvc2lzLCBkdXJpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UsIHdoZW4gc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIHNwaXQgYXBhcnQuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] In anaphase, the sister chromatids

[c]IHNlcGFyYXRlIGZyb2 0gZWFjaCBvdGhlci4=

[c]IGNvbmRlbnNlIGFuZCBiZWNvbWUgdGhpY2tlci4=

[c]IGpvaW4gdG9nZXRoZXIu

[c]IGJlY29tZSBhdHRhY2hlZCB0byBzcGluZGxlIGZpYmVycy4=

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIER1cmluZyBhbmFwaGFzZSwgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydC4=

[f]IE5vLiBDb25kZW5zYXRpb24gb2YgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaXMgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGR1cmluZyBwcm9waGFzZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIGpvaW5lZCB0b2dldGhlciBkdXJpbmcgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgd2hlbiBETkEgcmVwbGljYXRpb24gb2NjdXJzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgYXR0YWNoIHRvIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBkdXJpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] When would the cell have two nuclei?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9w aGFzZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgdGhlIGNlbGwgaGFzIG9ubHkgb25lIG51Y2xldXMuIENob29zZSBhIGxhdGVyIHBoYXNlIGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIG1hbmlwdWxhdGluZyBpdHMgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaW4gcHJlcGFyYXRpb24gZm9yIHNlcGFyYXRpbmcgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLiBEdXJpbmcgdGhpcyBwaGFzZSwgdGhlcmUgaXMgbm8gbnVjbGV1cy4gQ2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2VsbCBpcyBtYW5pcHVsYXRpbmcgaXRzIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGluIHByZXBhcmF0aW9uIGZvciBzZXBhcmF0aW5nIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcy4gRHVyaW5nIHRoaXMgcGhhc2UsIHRoZXJlIGlzIG5vIG51Y2xldXMuIENob29zZSBhIGxhdGVyIHBoYXNlIGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIHB1bGxpbmcgYXBhcnQgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLiBEdXJpbmcgdGhpcyBwaGFzZSwgdGhlcmUgaXMgbm8gbnVjbGV1cy4gQ2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBEdXJpbmcgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB0d28gbmV3IG51Y2xlaSBoYXZlIGZvcm1lZCBhcm91bmQgZWFjaCBzZXQgb2YgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2hyb21vc29tZXMuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] Cells that result from mitosis have identical:

[c]IEtpbmRzIG9mIHByb3RlaW5z

[c]IE51bWJlcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbnM=

[c]IEdlbmV0aWMgaW 5mb3JtYXRpb24=

[c]IE51bWJlcnMgb2YgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlh

[f]IE5vLiBNaXRvc2lzIHJlc3VsdHMgaW4gZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgaWRlbnRpY2FsIGRhdWdodGVyIGNlbGxzLiBIb3dldmVyLCBhcyB0aGUgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMgZGV2ZWxvcCwgZGlmZmVyZW50IGdlbmVzIGNhbiBiZSBhY3RpdmF0ZWQgb3Igc3VwcHJlc3NlZCwgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGluIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gb2YgZGlmZmVyZW50IGtpbmRzIHByb3RlaW5zLg==

[f]IE5vLiBNaXRvc2lzIHJlc3VsdHMgaW4gZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgaWRlbnRpY2FsIGRhdWdodGVyIGNlbGxzLiBIb3dldmVyLCBhcyB0aGUgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMgZGV2ZWxvcCwgZGlmZmVyZW50IGdlbmVzIGNhbiBiZSBhY3RpdmF0ZWQgb3Igc3VwcHJlc3NlZCwgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGluIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gb2YgZGlmZmVyZW50IG51bWJlcnMgcHJvdGVpbnMu

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIE1pdG9zaXMgcmVzdWx0cyBpbiBnZW5ldGljYWxseSBpZGVudGljYWwgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY2VsbHMu

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGl2aWRpbmcgdXAgb2YgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIGlzIGEgZmFpcmx5IHJhbmRvbSBhbmQgc3RhdGlzdGljYWwgYWZmYWlyLiBUaGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSBpbiBhIGNlbGwgY2FuIHZhcnkgd2lkZWx5LCBhbmQgaXTigJlzIGhpZ2hseSB1bmxpa2VseSB0aGF0IHRoZSBleGFjdCBudW1iZXIgb2YgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIHdpbGwgYmUgZm91bmQgaW4gdGhlIGRhdWdodGVyIGNlbGxzIGFmdGVyIGN5dG9raW5lc2lzLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q] In a plant cell, when would the Golgi apparatus be sending vesicles filled with cellulose to build a new cell wall?

[c]IGN5dG9r aW5lc2lz

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIER1cmluZyBjeXRva2luZXNpcywgYSBwbGFudCBjZWxsIGRpdmlkZXMgaW50byB0d28gYXMgdGhlIEdvbGdpIHNlbmRzIHZlc2ljbGVzIHdpdGggY2VsbHVsb3NlLiBUaGUgdmVzaWNsZXMgcmVsZWFzZSB0aGUgY2VsbHVsb3NlLCB3aGljaCBmb3JtcyBhIGNlbGwgcGxhdGUsIHRoZW4gYSBuZXcgY2VsbCB3YWxsLCBkaXZpZGluZyB0aGUgY2VsbCBpbiB0d28u

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIGEgbG9uZyB3YXkgZnJvbSBkaXZpZGluZyBpbnRvIHR3byBkYXVnaHRlciBjZWxscy4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCBjaG9vc2UgYSBsYXRlciBwaGFzZSBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2VsbCBpcyBhYm91dCBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uIHByb2Nlc3MuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgcGhhc2Uu

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIHB1bGxpbmcgYXBhcnQgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHRvIGZvcm0gdHdvIG5ldyBjb21wbGV0ZSBzZXRzIG9mIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBCdXQgaXTigJlzIHN0aWxsIG5vdCBxdWl0ZSByZWFkeSB0byBkaXZpZGUuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgdmVyeSBjbG9zZS4gRHVyaW5nIHRlbG9waGFzZSwgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIGJlaW5nIGVuY2xvc2VkIGluIG5ldyBudWNsZWkuIERpdmlzaW9uIGludG8gdHdvIGNlbGxzLCB3aGljaCBpbiBwbGFudHMgaW52b2x2ZXMgYnVpbGRpbmcgYSBuZXcgY2VsbCB3YWxsLCB3b3VsZCBpbW1lZGlhdGVseSBmb2xsb3cgdGhpcyBzdGFnZS48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] The first part of the M phase is called mitosis. What’s the second part called?

[c]IGN5dG9raW 5lc2lzLg==

[c]IG1pdG9raW5lc2lzLg==

[c]IHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uLg==

[c]IGNlbnRyb21lcmUu

[f]IFRoYXTigJlzIGNvcnJlY3QuIFRoZSBzZWNvbmQgc3RlcCBvZiBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uIGlzIGN5dG9raW5lc2lzLCB0aGUgc3BsaXR0aW5nIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHNvdW5kcyBsb2dpY2FsIChpbmNsdWRpbmcgYm90aCBtaXRvc2lzIGFuZCB0aGUgbmFtZSBmb3IgY2VsbCBkaXZpc2lvbiksIGJ1dCB0cnkgdG8gcmVtZW1iZXIganVzdCB0aGUgbmFtZSBmb3Igc3BsaXR0aW5nIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBUaGUg4oCYa2luZXNpc+KAmSBwYXJ0LCBieSB0aGUgd2F5LCBpcyBhbiBlbm9ybW91cyBoaW50Lg==

[f]IE5vLiBPbiBhbiBvdmVyYWxsIGxldmVsLCB0aGVyZSBpcyByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiwgbWFraW5nIHRoaXMgYSBsb2dpY2FsIGNob2ljZS4gQnV0IHdoYXQgeW914oCZcmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgaGVyZSBpcyBhIHdvcmQgdGhhdCByZWZlcnMgdG8gc3BsaXR0aW5nIHRoZSBjZWxsIGludG8gdHdvIGRhdWdodGVyIGNlbGxzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY2VudHJvbWVyZSBpcyB0aGUgcmVnaW9uIG9mIGEgY2hyb21vc29tZSB0aGF0IGNvbm5lY3RzIG9uZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkIHRvIGFub3RoZXIgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZC48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] The period of cell growth prior to division is

[c]IHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uLg==

[c]IHJlcHJvZHVjdGlvbi4=

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNlLg==

[c]IGludGVy cGhhc2Uu

[f]IE5vLiBSZXBsaWNhdGlvbiBvZiBETkEgb2NjdXJzIHByaW9yIHRvIGRpdmlzaW9uLCBidXQgdGhhdOKAmXMgbm90IHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoZSBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBSZXByb2R1Y3Rpb24gaXMgb25seSBvY2N1cnJpbmcgaWYgYSBuZXcgb3JnYW5pc20gaXMgYmVpbmcgY3JlYXRlZC4gT2Z0ZW4sIGRpdmlzaW9uIGlzIHNpbXBseSBjcmVhdGluZyBuZXcgY2VsbHMgZm9yIGFuIGV4aXN0aW5nIG9yZ2FuaXNtLiBUaGluayBvZiB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiBhIHBoYXNlLg==

[f]IE5vLiBBbmFwaGFzZSBpcyB3aGVuIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFyZSBiZWluZyBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQuIEl04oCZcyBub3QgcHJpb3IgdG8gZGl2aXNpb24uIFJhdGhlciwgaXTigJlzIGEgcGFydCBvZiBkaXZpc2lvbi4gVGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgYSBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEludGVycGhhc2UgaXMgdGhlIHBlcmlvZCBvZiBjZWxsIGdyb3d0aCB0aGF0IHByZWNlZGVzIGNlbGwgZGl2aXNpb24uPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] When does chromosome replication occur in a eukaryotic cell?

[c]IFByb3BoYXNl

[c]IE1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IEFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IEludGVy cGhhc2U=

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UsIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoYXQgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBhbHJlYWR5IGRvdWJsZWQsIGFuZCBjb25zaXN0IG9mIHR3byBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcy4gUGljayBhbiBlYXJsaWVyIHBoYXNlLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB5b3UgY2FuIHNlZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgYWxyZWFkeSBkb3VibGVkLCBhbmQgY29uc2lzdCBvZiB0d28gc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMuIFBpY2sgYW4gZWFybGllciBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBBbmFwaGFzZSBpcywgaW4gc29tZSB3YXlzLCB0aGUgb3Bwb3NpdGUgb2YgY2hyb21vc29tZSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiwgYmVjYXVzZSBpdOKAmXMgd2hlbiBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBnZXQgcHVsbGVkIGFwYXJ0LiBQaWNrIGFuIGVhcmxpZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIEludGVycGhhc2UgaXMgd2hlbiBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgcmVwbGljYXRlZC48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] When does the spindle first appear?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IHByb3 BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgaGFzbuKAmXQgeWV0IGZvcm1lZC4gQ2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgc3RlcCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4=

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIER1cmluZyBwcm9waGFzZSwgdGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWVzIHN0YXJ0IHRvIHByb2R1Y2UgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUu

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBpcyBhdCBpdHMgZnVsbGVzdCBkZXZlbG9wbWVudC4gQnV0IGl0IGZvcm1lZCBlYXJsaWVyIGluIHRoZSBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5vLiBCeSBhbmFwaGFzZSwgdGhlIHNwaW5kbGUgaGFzIGJlZW4gYXJvdW5kIGZvciBhIGxvbmcgdGltZS4gQ2hvb3NlIGFuIGVhcmxpZXIgcGhhc2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3MuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] When are the chromosomes lined up in the middle of the cell?

[c]IGludGVycGhhc2U=

[c]IGVhcmx5IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IGxhdGUgcHJvcGhhc2UvcHJvbWV0YXBoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFw aGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYXBoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBzdGlsbCBpbnNpZGUgdGhlIG51Y2xldXMuIFRoZSBsZXR0ZXIg4oCYbeKAmSBpbiB0aGUgd29yZCDigJhtaWRkbGXigJkgaXMgYSBjbHVlIHRvIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdG8gdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBlYXJseSBwcm9waGFzZSwgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaGF2ZSBjb25kZW5zZWQsIGJ1dCB0aGV5IGFyZSBzb21ld2hhdCByYW5kb21seSBhcnJhbmdlZCBpbiB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4gVGhlIGxldHRlciDigJht4oCZIGluIHRoZSB3b3JkIOKAmG1pZGRsZeKAmSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIGFuc3dlciB0byB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBsYXRlIHByb3BoYXNlL3Byb21ldGFwaGFzZSwgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGhhdmUgYmVlbiBob29rZWQgdXAgdG8gc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMsIGJ1dCB0aGV54oCZcmUgbm90IHlldCBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBUaGUgbGV0dGVyIOKAmG3igJkgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQg4oCYbWlkZGxl4oCZIGlzIGEgY2x1ZSB0byB0aGUgYW5zd2VyIHRvIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhpcyBjZWxsIGlzIGluIG1ldGFwaGFzZSwgd2hpY2ggeW91IGNhbiB0ZWxsIGJ5IHRoZSBmYWN0IHRoYXQgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBpbiB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhbmFwaGFzZSwgdGhlIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIGFyZSBiZWluZyBwdWxsZWQgYXBhcnQsIGF3YXkgZnJvbSB0aGUgbWlkZGxlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCByZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IHRoZSDigJht4oCZIGluIG1pZGRsZSBpcyBhIGNsdWUgdG8gdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhpcyBwaGFzZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBJbiB0ZWxvcGhhc2UsIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgbm8gbG9uZ2VyIGRpc3RpbmN0bHkgdmlzaWJsZSwgYW5kLCBpbnNpZGUgbmV3IG51Y2xlaSwgdGhleeKAmXZlIG1vdmVkIHRvIG9wcG9zaXRlIGVuZHMgdG8gdGhlIGNlbGwuIE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIOKAmG3igJkgaW4gbWlkZGxlIGlzIGEgY2x1ZSB0byB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIHBoYXNlLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q] A region of attachment for two sister chromatids is the:

[c]IENlbnRyb3NvbWU=

[c]IENlbnRy b21lcmU=

[c]IEFzdGVy

[c]IFNwaW5kbGUgZmliZXI=

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY2VudHJvc29tZSBwcm9kdWNlcyB0aGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgdGhhdCBtYW5pcHVsYXRlIGFuZCBkaXZpZGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgZHVyaW5nIG1pdG9zaXMu

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGNlbnRyb21lcmUgaXMgd2hhdCBjb25uZWN0cyB0aGUgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgYXN0ZXIgY29uc2lzdHMgb2YgdGhlIHNob3J0IG1pY3JvdHVidWxlcyAocHJvdGVpbiBmaWJlcnMpIHRoYXQgc3Vycm91bmQgZWFjaCBjZW50cm9zb21lLg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgYXJlIHRoZSDigJhyb3Blc+KAmSB0aGF0IHRoZSBjZWxsIHVzZXMgdG8gcHVsbCBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBhcGFydC48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] Microtubules become attached to each chromatid at its:

[c]IENlbnRyb3NvbWU=

[c]IENlbnRyb21lcmU=

[c]IEFzdGVy

[c]IEtpbmV0 b2Nob3Jl

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY2VudHJvc29tZSBwcm9kdWNlcyB0aGUgbWljcm90dWJ1bGUgc3BpbmRsZSBmaWJlcnMgdGhhdCBhdHRhY2ggdG8gdGhlIGNocm9tYXRpZHMu

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY2VudHJvbWVyZSBpcyB3aGF0IGhvbGRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyIHRoZSBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgYXN0ZXIgaXMgYW4gYXJyYXkgb2YgbWljcm90dWJ1bGVzIHRoYXQgcmFkaWF0ZXMgb3V0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbnRyb3NvbWUu

[f]IFJpZ2h0LiBUaGUga2luZXRvY2hvcmUgaXMg4oCYbGlrZSBhIGhhbmRsZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBmaWJlcnMgY2FuIGdyYXNwLCBhcyB0aGV5IHB1bGwgYXBhcnQgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCBzcGxpdHRpbmcgdGhlbSBpbiBoYWxm4oCZIChhIHF1b3RlIGZyb20gdGhlIOKAmE1pdG9zaXMgUmFwIeKAmSkuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] When do sister chromatids first become full fledged chromosomes?

[c]IGN5dG9raW5lc2lz

[c]IHByb3BoYXNl

[c]IG1ldGFwaGFzZQ==

[c]IGFuYX BoYXNl

[c]IHRlbG9waGFzZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgY3l0b2tpbmVzaXMsIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhcmUgZnVsbCBmbGVkZ2VkIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCBidXQgdGhleSBncmFkdWF0ZWQgZnJvbSBiZWluZyBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyBlYXJsaWVyIGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgcHJvcGhhc2UsIGVhY2ggY2hyb21vc29tZSBpcyBkb3VibGVkLCBhbmQgY29uc2lzdHMgb2YgdHdvIHNpc3RlciBjaHJvbWF0aWRzIHRoYXQgYXJlIGF0dGFjaGVkIGJ5IGEgY2VudHJvbWVyZS4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCBjaG9vc2UgYSBsYXRlciBzdGFnZSBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy4=

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlLCBlYWNoIGNocm9tb3NvbWUgaXMgZG91YmxlZCwgYW5kIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIHR3byBzaXN0ZXIgY2hyb21hdGlkcyB0aGF0IGFyZSBhdHRhY2hlZCBieSBhIGNlbnRyb21lcmUuIE5leHQgdGltZSwgY2hvb3NlIGEgbGF0ZXIgc3RhZ2UgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3Mu

[f]IE5pY2UuIEl04oCZcyBkdXJpbmcgYW5hcGhhc2UgdGhhdCB0aGUgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgYXJlIHB1bGxlZCBhcGFydCwgYW5kIGJlY29tZSBmdWxsLWZsZWRnZWQgY2hyb21vc29tZXMu

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgdGVsb3BoYXNlLCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYXJlIGZ1bGwgZmxlZGdlZCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcywgYnV0IHRoZXkgZ3JhZHVhdGVkIGZyb20gYmVpbmcgc2lzdGVyIGNocm9tYXRpZHMgZWFybGllciBpbiB0aGUgcHJvY2Vzcy48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] Which of the following does not occur during prophase?

[c]IFRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lIGRpc2ludGVncmF0ZXM=

[c]IE51Y2xlb2xpIGJyZWFrIHVw

[c]IFRoZSBzcGluZGxlIGFwcGFyYXR1cyBmb3Jtcw==

[c]IFRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBjb25kZW5zZQ==

[c]IEROQSByZX BsaWNhdGVz

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RlIHRoYXQgd2hhdCB5b3XigJlyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCBET0VTIE5PVCBoYXBwZW4gZHVyaW5nIHByb3BoYXNlLiBOdWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lIGRpc2ludGVncmF0aW9uIGRvZXMgb2NjdXIu

[f]IE5vLiDigJhOdWNsZW9saeKAmSBpcyBwbHVyYWwgZm9yIOKAmG51Y2xlb2x1cy7igJkgTm90ZSB0aGF0IHdoYXQgeW914oCZcmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgaXMgc29tZXRoaW5nIHRoYXQgRE9FUyBOT1QgaGFwcGVuIGR1cmluZyBwcm9waGFzZS4gQnJlYWsgdXAgb2YgdGhlIG51Y2xlb2x1cyBkb2VzIG9jY3VyLg==

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RlIHRoYXQgd2hhdCB5b3XigJlyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCBET0VTIE5PVCBoYXBwZW4gZHVyaW5nIHByb3BoYXNlLiBTcGluZGxlIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBieSB0aGUgY2VudHJvc29tZXMgaXMgYSBrZXkgZXZlbnQgb2YgcHJvcGhhc2Uu

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RlIHRoYXQgd2hhdCB5b3XigJlyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCBET0VTIE5PVCBoYXBwZW4gZHVyaW5nIHByb3BoYXNlLiBUaGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgZG8gY29uZGVuc2UgZHVyaW5nIHByb3BoYXNlLg==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gT2YgdGhlIGl0ZW1zIGxpc3RlZCBoZXJlLCB0aGUgb25seSBvbmUgdGhhdCBkb2VzbuKAmXQgaGFwcGVuIGlzIEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbi4gRE5BIHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uIG9jY3VycyBkdXJpbmcgaW50ZXJwaGFzZQ==

[x]

If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below

[restart]

[/qwiz]

9. Mitosis!

10. Mitosis: Interactive Lyrics

Now that you’ve watched the Mitosis Rap video, you’re ready for the quiz below.

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisLyrics”]

[h]Mitosis: Interactive Lyrics

[i]What follows are the lyrics to Mitosis!, organized into a fill-in-the blanks quiz. Reading like this will deepen your understanding of how mitosis works (See Make It Stick, by Brown, Roediger, and McDaniel).

Give it a try, and leave me a comment letting me know what you think.

[q labels = “top”]

__________ is cell division’s longest part,

Interphase

Nuclear membrane’s intact as it starts,
The cell’s growing, cytoplasm flowing,
chromosomes get duplicated, DNA gets __________

 

Chromosomes are __________ so they can’t be seen distinctly
But note the nucleolus, the ribosome factory
Outside the nucleus are two ____________,
They later make a spindle which will pull apart the chromosomes.

[l]centrosomes

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]interphase

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]replicated

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]spread out

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[q labels = “top”]

__________ follows, the chromosomes condense,

Prophase (Early)

Each is made of two sister ___________, like an “X”
Each sister is a clone, the closest of kin,
And a centromere connects them like siamese twins,

 

The __________ disappears it melts away,
as the cell takes a ribosome production holiday,
the centrosomes separate, start __________ formation
for separating chromatids and cell elongation.

[l]chromatids

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]nucleolus

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]prophase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]spindle

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[q labels = “top”]

CHORUS
Mitosis, ______________ ride
Inter-, pro-, meta-, ana-, ___________, divide
__________ go from one cell to two,
Mitosis, how cells __________.

[l]chromosomal

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]eukaryotes

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]renew

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]telophase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[q labels = “top”]

In late prophase (______________),
The nuclear membrane disintegrates,
The _____________ migrate to the cell’s opposing sides,
And between them the fibers of the spindle wend and wind,

 

The spindle’s made of _____________ fibers which attach

to chromosomes at _____________, a protein patch
that serves like a handle that the fibers can grasp,
When they pull apart the chromosomes, splitting them in __________.

The spindle pulls the ______________with nudges so fine
Into linear formation on the 50 yard line.
A location equatorial defining ___________,
where the chromosomes are lined up on that middle place.

[l]centrosomes

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]half

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]kinetochores

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]microtubule

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]prometaphase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]chromosomes

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]metaphase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

CHORUS

[q labels = “top”]

Anaphase

The spindle fibers pull on the kinetochores,
A cellular molecular mitotic tug of war,
The centromere snaps, sisters get __________,
Now these ____________ are chromosomes, they’ve been upgraded

 

This snapping separation defines __________.
The “A” for “apartness”, for moving different ways,
____________ spindle fibers separate the sisters
See ‘em waving goodbye, calling out “I’m gonna miss ya,”

 

And the other spindle fibers push and grapple like felons
Makes the cell elliptical like a watermelon,
In ___________ membranes form ‘round the ____________,
Which spread out as the __________ come on home.

[l]anaphase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]chromatids

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]chromosomes

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]kinetochore

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]nucleoli

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]separated

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]telophase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

CHORUS

[q labels = “top”]

In animal cells there’s a ring of ______________
that form at the __________ and they cinch themselves in
Tighter, tighter, tighter, tighter ‘til the cell is in two pieces,
Yeah in animals, that’s ___________.

 

But it’s different in plants in them the cell divides
By building a new __________ from the inside.
As the Golgi sends __________ with cellulosic goo,
Which makes a plate, then a wall, divides the cell in two

 

And instead of one mother cell we now have __________ two
Identical twins, kind of old but kind of new,
From your single celled beginning this is how you __________.
And for single celled eukaryotes it’s ____________ too!

[l]cell wall

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]cytokinesis

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]daughters

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]equator

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]grew

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]microfilaments

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]reproductive

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]vesicles

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

CHORUS (repeat and fade)

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

11. Mitosis! Karaoke

Now you’re ready for the ultimate mitosis challenge. Rap the lyrics yourself. Give it a try!

 Link to