Page outline

  1. Introduction
  2. The Calvin Cycle
  3. Quiz: The Calvin Cycle
  4. Quiz: Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration

1. Introduction

Let’s begin with an interactive reading to review some of what we’ve learned so far.

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-PSN, Part 5 Intro, Interactive Reading”]

[h]Photosynthesis, Part 5: Introduction

[i]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171ddd77ccc756″ question_number=”1″]We’ve seen so far that photosynthesis involves two phases. The one indicated by “II” is called the [hangman] cycle.

[c]Calvin

[!]Question 2[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171d9e9a8bbb56″ question_number=”2″]The Calvin cycle takes the outputs of the light reactions, and along with carbon dioxide, uses them as inputs. Which number indicates carbon dioxide?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]6

[f]Yes. “6” is carbon dioxide

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Find an arrow that’s going into the calvin cycle, but which is not one of the outputs of the light reactions.

[!]Question 3[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171d6211569356″ question_number=”3″]Carbon dioxide, at “6,” can be considered the external input of the Calvin cycle. An internal input includes the reduced mobile electron carrier [hangman], which is shown at “5.”

[c]NADPH

[!]Question 4[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171d2588216b56″ question_number=”4″]One of the internal inputs of the Calvin cycle is the reduced mobile electron carrier NADPH, shown at “5” below. The other input is [hangman], indicated by “4.”

[c]ATP

[!]Question 5[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171ce8feec4356″ question_number=”5″]While the light reactions occur in the thylakoid sacs, the Calvin cycle occurs in the [hangman].

[c]stroma

[!]Question 6[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171ca7cd9f5356″ question_number=”6″]Which letter or number shows the structures where the light reactions occur?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]a

[f]Yes. Letter “a” indicates the thylakoids

[c*]I

[f]Yes. “I” shows a stack of thylakoids (and indicates the light reactions).

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The light reactions occur in the thylakoid sacs, which are tiny oval structures within the chloroplast, organized into stacks.

[!]Question 7[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171c68f05e4756″ question_number=”7″]Which letter or number shows where the Calvin cycle takes place? (Note: don’t enter a roman numeral)

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]b

[f]Yes. Letter “b” indicates the stroma, which is where the Calvin cycle takes place.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The Calvin cycle occurs in the equivalent of the cytoplasm of the chloroplast–the fluid that is betwee the thylakoids and the chloroplast’s inner membrane.

[!]Question 8[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Part 5 (Calvin Cycle) Introduction|171c256b057356″ question_number=”8″]To the extent that any biological process can be said to have a purpose, then the purpose of photosynthesis, from a plant’s perspective, is to create

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]7

[f]Yes. Letter “7” indicates carbohydrate. Synthesizing carbohydrate is, from a plant’s perspective, the purpose of photosynthesis.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The purpose of photosynthesis, from a plant’s perspective, is to create sugars that can be used for growth and for energy. Which part of the diagram could represent a sugar?

[x][restart]

[/qwiz]

2. The Calvin Cycle

Let’s begin with the end in mind. Thus far in this series of tutorials, our vision of the Calvin Cycle has involved the diagram shown below, which you just worked with in the quiz above. You can see how carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (or water, if this were an aquatic plant) enters the cycle, along with NADPH and ATP from the light reactions. Using these inputs, the Calvin cycle produces simple sugars (which are the building blocks of carbohydrates).

By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain what’s going on in the diagram below, which shows the inputs, outputs, and key intermediate compounds of the Calvin cycle in a lot more detail. Let’s go.

Let’s start by talking about how this diagram works. There’s a legend on the top left, which tells you how to identify the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus atoms that make up the molecules involved in the cycle. The letters “a” through “f” next to the structural formulas in the diagram represent molecules involved in the cycle (and you’ll learn their names in what follows). The numbers “1,” “3,” “5,” or “6” next to the structural formulas indicate the number of molecules. For example, find the letter “a” in the top right of the diagram (at about 1 o’clock), The “3” next to the structural formula for carbon dioxide indicates that there’s three carbon dioxide molecules entering the cycle. Why does that matter? Because the Calvin cycle is how matter enters the biosphere, and it’s only by following the number of molecules (and atoms) that we’ll be able to see that happening.

RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate)

Phase 1: Carbon Fixation

Start by finding the molecule next to letter “f.” This is ribulose bisphosphate, also known as RuBP. You might remember that ribose, in RNA, is a five-carbon sugar. If you count the carbons in RuBP, you’ll also find five carbons. The “bisphosphate” part of the name relates to the fact that the molecule has two phosphate groups attached to it.

RuBP can be considered to be the end-point of the Calvin cycle. Because it’s a cycle, we can also consider RuBP to be the starting point. So, we’re going to start with three molecules of RuBP, for a total of 15 carbon atoms in the cycle.

3-phosphoglycerate

Now, follow the arrow from RuBP to a space filling model of an enzyme called RuBisCo. “RuBisCo” is an abbreviation for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylate. This enzyme’s function is to take the RuBP (Ribulose Bisphosphate) that we just met, and to combine it with carbon dioxide, shown at “a.” Keeping track of our carbons, what’s happening is that three molecules of RuBP are going to be combined with three molecules of carbon dioxide. Since RuBP has five carbon atoms, and carbon dioxide has one, you might expect that the result would be three, six-carbon molecules. That is what happens, but that six-carbon molecule is so unstable that it immediately dissociates into two three-carbon molecules. Because three of these six-carbon molecules have split themselves in half, we now have six three-carbon molecules called 3-phosphoglycerate, shown at “b.” That’s a total of 18 carbon atoms present at this point in the cycle.

Note that all of this has occurred within phase “I,” indicated by the top yellow third of the diagram. This is the “carbon fixation” phase of the Calvin cycle. In this phase, gaseous carbon dioxide gets pulled into living matter. As we discussed in the first tutorial in this module, every carbon atom in your body was once gaseous carbon dioxide in the air. Then it was in a plant. And now, either through a direct pathway (you ate the plant) or an indirect one (you ate an animal that ate the plant) it’s in you.

Phase II: Energy Investment and Harvest

In Phase II of the Calvin Cycle, the three-carbon molecule 3-phosphoglycerate gets phosphorylated and reduced. Here’s where the outputs of the light reactions (ATP and NADPH) become inputs for the Calvin Cycle. In step “c,” an enzyme takes a phosphate from ATP and places it onto 3-phosphoglycerate, creating 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. In step “d,” another enzyme takes 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and reduces it. In this step, energetic electrons (and hydrogen) from NADPH are being transferred to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, which becomes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, or G3P. You can see the effects of this reduction by counting the number of hydrogen atoms in each compound. Which compound has more?

1, 3 bisphosphoglycerate

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate (G3P)

G3P is the harvestable product of the Calvin Cycle. Note that from the moment that followed carbon fixation, we’ve had six, three-carbon molecules (for a total of 18 carbon atoms). Now the cell is going to harvest some of this reduced, energized G3P. When farmers harvest their crops, they remove the plants from their fields, and use them (eating them, or selling them). The cell will now do a similar thing, using the chemical energy in this three-carbon G3P for energy, or using the atoms for growth. That harvest is indicated in the lower left side of the Calvin Cycle diagram.

Phase III: Regeneration of RuBP

Ribulose-5-phosphate

Removing a G3P from the cycle leaves us with 15 carbon atoms: there were 18 carbons immediately following the carbon fixation phase, and we just removed three carbons in G3P. To prepare to run the cycle again, the chloroplast needs to regenerate the starting compound RuBP, and that’s what Phase III is all about. A series of enzymes takes the five, three-carbon G3P molecules that the Calvin Cycle is left with after one of the G3Ps is harvested, and reorganizes them into three, five-carbon molecules. Note that we still have 15 carbon atoms.

This five carbon molecule is called ribulose-5-phosphate (at “e” in the diagram, and also at right). In terms of structure, ribulose-5-phosphate is very close to RuBP: it’s just missing one phosphate. Enzymes solve this problem by taking three ATPs, removing their phosphates, and attaching them to ribulose-5-phosphate. This re-creates the three molecules of 5-carbon RuBP that we’ll need for another round of carbon fixation.

What’s the take-away?

If you’re supplied with a diagram like the one above, you should be able to explain where carbon fixation, reduction, and phosphorylation, and rearrangements are happening. As you do this, the names of the intermediates are not important: you just need to remember “RuBP” and “G3P.”

In terms of concepts to remember, I’d suggest the following:

  1. During the Calvin cycle, the enzyme Rubisco carries out carbon fixation, combining carbon dioxide with the Calvin cycle’s starting and ending compound, RuBP.
  2. This is an endergonic process, and it’s powered by the energetic products of the light reactions, ATP and NADPH.
  3. Because it’s chemically powered (by ATP and NADPH), the Calvin cycle doesn’t need light to proceed. That’s why you’ll see it referred to as the “light independent reactions,” or even the “dark reactions.”
  4. The product is the three carbon sugar G3P, also known as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

Got it? Try the quiz below.

3. The Calvin Cycle: Checking Understanding

[qwiz random = “true” width:700px” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-PSN: Calvin Cycle, CFU”]

[h]Calvin Cycle: Checking Understanding

[i]

[!!]Question 1[/!!!]

[q labels = “top” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Calvin Cycle Quiz|171a2e80fd1356″ question_number=”1″]

 

[l]Carbon Dioxide

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]Carbon Fixation Phase

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

 

[l]Energy Investment Phase

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]G3P

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]Phosphorylation

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]Reduction

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]RuBP

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]RuBP Regeneration Phase

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[!!]Question 2[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Calvin Cycle Quiz|1719f69fdfb356″ question_number=”2″]After carbon dioxide is combined with RuBP, the six carbon product immediately dissociates into which of the molecules shown below?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]b

[f]Yes. Letter “b” indicates the three carbon molecule that appears in the Calvin cycle immediately following carbon fixation.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Use the legend (upper right) to figure out which molecule is carbon dioxide. Right nearby, you’ll find your answer.

[!!]Question 3[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Calvin Cycle Quiz|1719bebec25356″ question_number=”3″]Which letter in the diagram below indicates RuBP, the starting and ending compound in the Calvin cycle.

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]f

[f]Yes. Letter “f” indicates RuBP, the Calvin cycle’s starting and ending compound

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Use the legend (upper right) to figure out which molecule is carbon dioxide. RuBP is the molecule that gets combined with carbon dioxide as the Calvin cycle begins.

[!!]Question 4[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Calvin Cycle Quiz|17197d8d756356″ question_number=”4″]Which letter in the diagram below shows a molecule that results from the chemical reduction that occurs within the Calvin cycle?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]d

[f]Yes. Letter “d” indicates G3P, which results when compound “c” gets reduced, receiving electrons and hydrogen from NADPH.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The biological reductions in the Calvin cycle involve electrons and hydrogens that are contributed by NADPH. Find NADPH, and you’ll have your answer.

[!!]Question 5[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Calvin Cycle Quiz|171945ac580356″ question_number=”5″]Which of the phases of the Calvin cycle involves carbon fixation?

[c*]I     [c]II     [c]III

[f]Yes. Phase I of this calvin cycle diagram involves carbon fixation.

[f]No. This is the energy investment phase. There are reductions and phosphorylations, but no carbon fixation. Look for a phase where carbon is coming into the cycle.

[f]No. This is the RuBP regeneration phase. Look for a phase where carbon is coming into the cycle.

[!!]Question 6[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Calvin Cycle Quiz|17190b772ebf56″ question_number=”6″]Which of the phases of the Calvin cycle shown below involves energy investment?

[c]I     [c*]II     [c]III

[f]No. Phase I of this calvin cycle diagram involves carbon fixation. Look for phase where energy transfer molecules (such as ATP and NADPH) are converted into lower energy forms.

[f]Yes. This is the energy investment phase. There are reductions and phosphorylations, both of which add energy to the molecules in the Calvin cycle.

[f]No. This is the RuBP regeneration phase.Look for phase where energy transfer molecules (such as ATP and NADPH) are converted into lower energy forms.

[!!]Question 7[/!!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Calvin Cycle Quiz|1718d396115f56″ question_number=”7″]Which of the phases of the Calvin cycle shown below involves regeneration of RuBP?

[c]I     [c]II     [c*]III

[f]No. Phase I of this calvin cycle diagram involves carbon fixation. Look for a phase where the starting compound (the 5 carbon molecule RuBP) is being regenerated.

[f]No. This is the energy investment phase. Look for a phase where the starting compound (the 5 carbon molecule RuBP) is being regenerated.

[f]Yes. This is the RuBP regeneration phase.
[x][restart]

[/qwiz]

4. Quiz: Making connections between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Note that in my sequence, I teach cellular respiration before photosynthesis. If your professor or teacher does the reverse order, then bookmark this page, and come back to it after you’ve learned about cellular respiration (when what’s below will make more sense).

Now that we’ve covered what you need to know about photosynthesis for a typical college or AP Biology course, let’s compare some of the key points of photosynthesis with its metabolic counterpart, cellular respiration. Note that to make a point, the diagram takes one liberty: what goes into a mitochondrion (“g”) is actually pyruvic acid, not glucose (or another simple sugar, indicated by letter “e”).

[qwiz random=”true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-PSN: Photosynthesis and Respiration”]

[h]Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration

[i]

[!!]question 1 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1716a276dfbb56″ question_number=”1″]In the diagram below, carbon dioxide is indicated by

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]l

[f]Yes. Letter “l” indicates carbon dioxide.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Carbon dioxide is a gas that’s released by mitochondria as a waste product, and taken into chloroplasts as an input.

[!!]question 2 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171665edaa9356″ question_number=”2″]In the diagram below, oxygen is indicated by letter

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]f

[f]Yes. Letter “f” indicates oxygen, a waste product of photosynthesis, and an input for cellular respiraiton.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Find a gas that’s coming out of a chloroplast (“a”), and going into a mitochondrion (“g”)

[!!]question 3 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17162bb8814f56″ question_number=”3″]In the diagram below, protons are pumped to which region of a chloroplast?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]d

[f]Yes. Letter “d” indicates the thylakoid space, which is where protons are pumped to in a chloroplast.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. For ATP synthesis to occur, protons have to be pumped into a small enclosed space. Find a space like that in the chloroplast (“a”).

[!!]question 4 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1715f3d763ef56″ question_number=”4″]In the diagram below, protons are pumped to which region of a mitochondrion?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]h

[f]Yes. Letter “h” indicates the intermembrane space, which is where protons are pumped to in a mitochondrion.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. For ATP synthesis to occur, protons have to be pumped into a small enclosed space. Find a space like that in the mitochondrion (“g”).

[!!]question 5 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1715b74e2ec756″ question_number=”5″]In the diagram below, the electron transport chain in a mitochondrion would be found on

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]i

[f]Yes. Letter “i” indicates the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is where the electron transport chain is located.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The electron transport chain has to be located on a membrane, and it has to be located next to an enclosed space (where protons can be pumped to). In a mitochondrion, what letter could indicate a part that fits those requirements?

[!!]question 6 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17157f6d116756″ question_number=”6″]In the diagram below, the electron transport chain in a chloroplast would be found on

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]c

[f]Yes. Letter “c” indicates the thylakoid membrane, which is where the electron transport chain is located in a chloroplast.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The electron transport chain has to be located on a membrane, and it has to be located next to an enclosed space (where protons can be pumped to). In a chloroplast, what letter would indicate a part that fits those requirements?

[!!]question 7 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17152b9b655756″ question_number=”7″]In the diagram below, the Calvin cycle would occur at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]b

[f]Yes. Letter “b” indicates the stroma, which is where the Calvin cycle occurs.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The Calvin cycle occurs in a chloroplast, outside of the thylakoids.

[!!]question 8 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1714e5c2009f56″ question_number=”8″]In the diagram below, the Krebs cycle would occur at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]j

[f]Yes. Letter “j” indicates the matrix, which is where the Krebs cycle occurs.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The Krebs cycle occurs in a mitochondrion, in the fluid that’s bounded by the inner membrane.

[!!]question 9 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17149d94900356″ question_number=”9″]In the diagram below, ATP synthase in a chloroplast would be found at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]c

[f]Yes. Letter “c” indicates the thylakoid membrane, which is where the ATP synthase channel/enzyme is found in a chloroplast.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. ATP synthase is a channel and enzyme that uses the kinetic energy of diffusing protons to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate. To function, it has be located on a membrane that encloses a confined space that protons can be pumped into. Which membrane in a chloroplast could fit that description?

[!!]question 10 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171455671f6756″ question_number=”10″]In the diagram below, ATP synthase in a mitochondrion would be found at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]i

[f]Yes. Letter “i” indicates the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is where the ATP synthase channel/enzyme is found in a mitochondrion.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. ATP synthase is a channel and enzyme that uses the kinetic energy of diffusing protons to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate. To function, it has be located on a membrane that encloses a confined space that protons can be pumped into. Which membrane in a mitochondrion could fit that description?

[!!]question 11 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17140ae5a2e756″ question_number=”11″]Pretend that a chloroplast could have a goal (besides reproducing itself). If a chloroplast had a goal, what letter below could best represent it?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]e

[f]Yes. Letter “e” represents a simple sugar. That’s the key output of photosynthesis. If a chloroplast had a goal, making sugar (in my opinion), would be it.

[c]*

[f]No. Think of the chloroplast as an organelle, with a function. Its function is to make something. What is it?

[!!]question 12 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1713b96802bb56″ question_number=”12″]Pretend that a mitochondrion could have a goal (besides reproducing itself). If a mitochondrion had a goal, what letter below could best represent it?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]k

[f]Yes. Letter “k” represents ATP. That’s the key output of cellular respiration. If a mitochondrion had a goal, making ATP (in my opinion), would be it.

[c]*

[f]No. Think of the mitochondrion as an organelle, with a function. Its function is to make something. What is it?

[!!]question 13 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1713713a921f56″ question_number=”13″]What letter represents the energy that drives photosynthesis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]n

[f]Yes. Letter “n” represents light, the energy that drives photosynthesis.

[c]*

[f]No. Think of the word “photosynthesis.” The “photo” part refers to what that’s shown in the diagram?

[!!]question 14 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17132b612d6756″ question_number=”14″]What letter represents the energy that drives cellular respiration?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]e

[f]Yes. Letter “e” represents a simple sugar. The energy from that sugar is what drives cellular respiration.

[c]*

[f]No. Take a look at the diagram, and look at the two inputs for a mitochondrion. One of them provides the energy that drives cellular respiration.

 

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1712e587c8af56″ question_number=”15″]In the diagram below, the inputs provided to the Calvin cycle at letter “b” would include ATP and [hangman]

[c]NADPH

 

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1712a2026fdb56″ question_number=”16″]In the diagram below, the inputs provided to the Calvin cycle at letter “b” would include NADPH and [hangman]

[c]ATP

[!!]question 17 [/!!]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17125c290b2356″ question_number=”17″]In the diagram below, which letter indicates the source of the electrons that flow in non-cyclic electron flow?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*]m

[f]Yes. Letter “m” represents water, which is the source of the electrons in non-cyclic electron flow.

[c]*

[f]No. Take a look at the diagram, and look at the two inputs for a chloroplast. One of them provides these electrons.

 

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171218a3b24f56″ question_number=”18″]The structure at “c” is a [hangman] membrane.

[c]thylakoid

 

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1711d07641b356″ question_number=”19″]The enzyme found in both “c” and “i” that uses the flow of protons to generate ATP is called ATP [hangman]

[c]synthase

 

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171185f4c53356″ question_number=”20″]The particles that are pumped into “d” and “h” are [hangman]

[c]protons

 

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1710fc9607a756″ question_number=”21″]The membrane transport process that brings protons from “d” to “b” and from “h” to “j” is [hangman] diffusion

[c]facilitated

[x][restart]

[/qwiz]

 

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