Please complete both quizzes below to get ready for AP Bio Unit 3 (Enzymes and Energy)

Quiz 1: Multiple Choice Review

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosmeister1961-Units and 1, M.C. Review” random=”true” style=”width: 600px !important;”]

[h] Units 1 and 2 (quarter 1) Multiple choice Review Quiz

[i]Biohaiku

Molecules of Life

Make up cellular structures

The basis of life

[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|230e0ef3a0bc5a” question_number=”1″] In the diagram below, letter Y represents a(n)

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[c]IHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cDwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwcyBhcmUgb24gdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgRE5BLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3NlPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBEZW94eXJpYm9zZSBpcyB0aGUgc3VnYXIgb24gdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgRE5BLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2U8L3A+Cjxw PjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgJiM4MjIwO1omIzgyMjE7IGlzIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgZm91ciBuaXRyb2dlbm91cyBiYXNlcy48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBBbWlubyBhY2lkcyBhcmUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbi4gVGhpcyBpcyBETkEuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|995277725cb34″ question_number=”2″] In the diagram below, letter X represents a(n)

[c]IHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cDwvcD4KPH A+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IFdheSB0byBnby4gJiM4MjIwO1gmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXAuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3NlPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBEZW94eXJpYm9zZSBpcyBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIHN1Z2FycyBpbiBETkEuICYjODIyMDtYJiM4MjIxOyBjb25uZWN0cyB0aGUgc3VnYXJzIChzaG93biBhdCAmIzgyMjA7WSYjODIyMTspIHRvZ2V0aGVyLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2U8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgZm9ybSB0aGUgaW50ZXJuYWwgcnVuZ3Mgb2YgdGhlIEROQSBsYWRkZXIuICYjODIyMDtYJiM4MjIxOyAoYWxvbmcgd2l0aCAmIzgyMjA7WSYjODIyMTspIGlzIG9uIHRoZSBvdXRzaWRlIG9mIHRoZSBsYWRkZXIuIFdoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgdGhlIGxhZGRlcj88L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBBbWlubyBhY2lkcyBhcmUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbiwgYW5kIHRoaXMgaXMgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSBvZiBETkEuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|993da84816f34″ question_number=”4″] In the diagram below, the bonds connecting G and C (guanine and cytosine) are ________ bonds.

[c]IGNvdmFsZW50PC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBDb3ZhbGVudCBib25kcyBhcmUgdGhlIHN0cm9uZyBib25kcyBmb3JtZWQgd2hlbiBhdG9tcyBzaGFyZSBlbGVjdHJvbnMuIFRoZXkgbWFrZSB1cCBwcmV0dHkgbXVjaCBldmVyeSBib25kIGluIEROQSwgZXhjZXB0IHRoZSBtdWNoIHdlYWtlciBib25kcyBiZXR3ZWVuIEcgYW5kIEMuIFdoYXQgYXJlIHRob3NlIHdlYWtlciBib25kcyAod2hpY2ggcGxheSBhIGtleSByb2xlIGluIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcykgY2FsbGVkPzwvcD4KPHA+[c]IHBlcHRpZGU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBQZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzIGFyZSB0aGUgYm9uZHMgdGhhdCBob2xkIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyIGluIHByb3RlaW5zLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgbm8gcGVwdGlkZSBib25kcyBpbiBETkEgKGJlY2F1c2UgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBub3QgYSBwcm90ZWluLCBidXQgYSBudWNsZWljIGFjaWQpLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuPC9wPgo8cD48Yn IgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIGJvbmQgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgQyBhbmQgRyAoY3l0b3NpbmUgYW5kIGd1YW5pbmUpIGFyZSBoeWRyb2dlbiBib25kcy48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGlvbmljPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBJb25pYyBib25kcyBhcmUgdGhlIGJvbmRzIGZvcm1lZCB3aGVuIGF0b21zIHRyYWRlIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4gSW9uaWMgYm9uZHMgZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgcGxheSBhIHJvbGUgaW4gRE5BJiM4MjE3O3Mgc3RydWN0dXJlLiBUaGUgYW5zd2VyIGlzIGEgbXVjaCB3ZWFrZXIgYm9uZDogdGhlIHR5cGUgdGhhdCBwbGF5cyBhIGtleSByb2xlIGluIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlczwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|9281d66491734″ question_number=”131″] As applied to proteins, which of the following best describes “denaturation?”

[c]IEJyZWFraW5nIHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZHM8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBCcmVha2luZyBwZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzIGlzIGJlc3QgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGFzIHByb3RlaW4gZGlnZXN0aW9uIG9yIGRlZ3JhZGF0aW9uLiBEZW5hdHVyYXRpb24gaXMgbXVjaCBsZXNzIHNldmVyZSBhbmQgcGVybWFuZW50LjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGNvdmFsZW50bHkgbW9kaWZ5aW5nIGEgcHJvdGVpbjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBDb3ZhbGVudCBtb2RpZmljYXRpb24gd291bGQgY29uc3RpdHV0ZSBhIGNoZW1pY2FsIGNoYW5nZSB0byB0aGUgcHJvdGVpbiwgYW5kIGlzIG11Y2ggbW9yZSBkcmFzdGljIHRoYW4gd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGR1cmluZyBkZW5hdHVyYXRpb24uPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGEgY2hhbmdpbmcgYSBwcm90ZWluJiM4MjE3O3MgdGVydGlhcnkg c3RydWN0dXJlPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IFllcy4gRGVuYXR1cmF0aW9uIGlzIGEgY2hhbmdlIGluIHByb3RlaW4gc2hhcGUgYnJvdWdodCBhYm91dCBieSBhIGNoYW5nZSBpbiBhIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBlbnZpcm9ubWVudC4gT2Z0ZW4sIHRoZXNlIGNoYW5nZXMgaW52b2x2ZSBkaXNydXB0aW9uIG9mIHRlcnRpYXJ5IGxldmVsIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGEgY2hhbmdpbmcgYSBwcm90ZWluJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIHByaW1hcnkgc3RydWN0dXJlPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBBIGNoYW5nZSBpbiBhIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBwcmltYXJ5IHN0cnVjdHVyZSBpcyBhIGZ1bmRhbWVudGFsIHNoaWZ0IGluIGEgcHJvdGVpbiYjODIxNztzIGlkZW50aWZ5LCBjaGVtaXN0cnksIGFuZCBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUuIERlbmF0dXJhdGlvbiBpcyBvZnRlbiB0ZW1wb3JhcnksIGFuZCBpbnZvbHZlIGEgbXVjaCBsZXNzIGRyYXN0aWMgbGV2ZWwgb2YgY2hhbmdlLjwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|216b9be69cf85a” question_number=”135″] In proteins, the beta-pleated sheet and alpha helix result from

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All of the molecules shown above are

[c]IGxpcGlkczwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhIGxpcGlkLCB5b3UgdHlwaWNhbGx5IHNlZSBhIGxvbmcgaHlkcm9jYXJib24gY2hhaW4uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoaXMgaXMgYSBjbGFzcyBvZiBtYWNyb21vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IGluY2x1ZGVzIG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcyAobGlrZSB0aGUgZ2x1Y29zZSBzaG93biBhYm92ZSksIGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMsIGFuZCBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZXMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHByb3RlaW5zPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBQcm90ZWlucyAoc3VjaCBhcyBveHlnZW4tY2FycnlpbmcgaGVtb2dsb2JpbiBvciB0aGUgY29udHJhY3RpbGUgcHJvdGVpbiBteW9zaW4pIGFyZSBwb2x5bWVycyBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy7CoEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoaXMgaXMgYSBjbGFzcyBvZiBtYWNyb21vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IGluY2x1ZGVzIG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcyAobGlrZSB0aGUgZ2x1Y29zZSBzaG93biBhYm92ZSksIGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMsIGFuZCBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZXMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXM8L3A+CjxwPj xiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQWxsIG9mIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZXMgc2hvd24gYWJvdmUgYXJlIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHM8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBOdWNsZWljIGFjaWRzLCBzdWNoIGFzIEROQSBvciBSTkEsIGFyZSBwb2x5bWVycyBvZiBudWNsZW90aWRlcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogd2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIGlzIGEgY2xhc3Mgb2YgbWFjcm9tb2xlY3VsZXMgdGhhdCBpbmNsdWRlcyBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMgKGxpa2UgdGhlIGdsdWNvc2UgaW4gdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0pLCBkaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzLCBhbmQgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzLjwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|920520a7ad334″ question_number=”139″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

Molecules “C” and “D” are

[c]IG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlczwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBNb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzLiBUaGUgYXJlIHRoZSBzaW1wbGVzdCBvZiBzdWdhcnMsIGFuZCBjb25zaXN0IG9mIG9ubHkgb25lIG1vbm9tZXIuICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxOyBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IGNvbnNpc3Qgb2YgbWFueSBzdWdhciBtb25vbWVycyBsaW5rZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgcHJlZml4IGZvciAmIzgyMjA7bWFueT8mIzgyMjE7PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXM8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBEaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGFyZSBzdWdhcnMgdGhhdCBjb25zaXN0IG9mIHR3byBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkcyBsaW5rZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIsIGFzIGlzIHNob3duIGluICYjODIyMDtCLiYjODIyMTsmIzgyMjE7QyYjODIyMTsgYW5kICYjODIyMDtEJiM4MjIxOyBjb25zaXN0IG9mIG1hbnkgc3VnYXIgbW9ub21lcnMgbGlua2VkIHRvZ2V0aGVyLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB3aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIHByZWZpeCBmb3IgJiM4MjIwO21hbnk/JiM4MjIxOzwvcD4KPHA+[c]IHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlczwvcD4KPH A+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEMgYW5kIEQgYXJlIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcy48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91f3850dc0f34″ question_number=”140″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

If molecule “C”  1) originates in a plant and 2) consists of glucose monomers connected by bonds that allow that that molecule to be broken down by humans for energy, then that molecule must be

[c]IGNlbGx1bG9zZTwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBDZWxsdWxvc2UgaXMgdGhlIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgcGxhbnQgY2VsbCB3YWxscy4gV2UgaW5nZXN0IGNlbGx1bG9zZSBldmVyeXRpbWUgd2UgZWF0IGZydWl0IG9yIGEgdmVnZXRhYmxlLCBidXQgd2UgbGFjayB0aGUgZW56eW1lcyB0byBicmVhayBhcGFydCBjZWxsdWxvc2UgaW50byBnbHVjb3NlIG1vbm9tZXJzIGZyb20gd2hpY2ggd2UgY291bGQgZGVyaXZlIGVuZXJneS4gRm9vZHMgaGlnaCBpbiBjZWxsdWxvc2UsIGFzIGEgY29uc2VxdWVuY2UsIGFyZSB2ZXJ5IGxvdyBjYWxvcmllICh0aGluayBvZiBsZXR0dWNlIG9yIGNlbGVyeSkuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQgd2UgY2FuIGJyZWFrIGRvd24gZm9yIGVuZXJneS48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGdseWNvZ2VuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2dlbiBpcyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQgY2FuIGJlIGJyb2tlbiBkb3duIGJ5IGh1bWFucyBmb3IgZW5lcmd5LCBidXQgaXQgZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dCBjb21lIGZyb20gcGxhbnRzLiBNYW1tYWxzIHN5bnRoZXNpemUgZ2x5Y29nZW4gd2hlbiB0aGV5IGVhdCBzdWdhciwgYW5kIHN0b3JlIGl0IGluIGxpdmVyIGFuZCBtdXNjbGUgdGlzc3VlIGZvciBsYXRlciB1c2UuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIG1hZGUgYnkgcGxhbnRzIHRoYXQgd2UgKGFuZCBvdGhlciBhbmltYWxzKSBjYW4gYnJlYWsgZG93biBmb3IgZW5lcmd5PzwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGFsYnVtaW48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBBbGJ1bWluIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiAoZm91bmQgaW4gZWdnIHdoaXRlLCBhbW9uZyBvdGhlciBwbGFjZXMpLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYSBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGUsIGFuZCBtb3JlIHNwZWNpZmljYWxseSwgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSBtYWRlIGJ5IHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IHdlIChhbmQgb3RoZXIgYW5pbWFscykgY2FuIGJyZWFrIGRvd24gZm9yIGVuZXJneT88L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHN0YXJjaDwvcD4KPHA+PGJy IGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgU3RhcmNoIGlzIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgdGhhdCBodW1hbnMgY2FuIGJyZWFrIGRvd24gZm9yIGVuZXJneS48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91e51d042e334″ question_number=”141″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

If molecule “C” were a component of plant cell walls, then it would most likely be

[c]IGNlbGx1bG9zZTwvcD4KPHA+PG JyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIENlbGx1bG9zZSBpcyB0aGUgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgdGhhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCBwbGFudCBjZWxsIHdhbGxzLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGdseWNvZ2VuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2dlbiBpcyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlLCBidXQgb25lIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB1c2VkIGZvciBlbmVyZ3kgc3RvcmFnZSBpbiBhbmltYWxzLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGFsYnVtaW48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBBbGJ1bWluIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbi4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHN0YXJjaDwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBTdGFyY2ggaXMgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSwgYnV0IG9uZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdXNlZCBmb3IgZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UgaW4gcGxhbnRzLjwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91b3334546734″ question_number=”144″] Amino acids differ from one another because

[c]IHRoZXkgaGF2ZSBzaWRlIGNoYWlucyB3aXRoIGRpc3RpbmN0IGNoZW1pY2 FsIHByb3BlcnRpZXMuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIGFsbCBoYXZlIGEgY2VudHJhbCBjYXJib24sIGNvbm5lY3RlZCB0byBhbiBhbWlubyBncm91cCBhbmQgYSBjYXJib3h5bCBncm91cC4gVGhleSBkaWZmZXIgaW4gdGhlaXIgc2lkZSBjaGFpbnMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHNvbWUgaGF2ZSBncmVhdGVyIGNhdGFseXRpYyBhY3Rpdml0eSB0aGFuIG90aGVycy48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiA8ZW0+RW56eW1lczwvZW0+LCB3aGljaCBhcmUgYWxtb3N0IGFsd2F5cyBtYWRlIG9mIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLCBkaWZmZXIgaW4gdGhlaXIgY2F0YWx5dGljIGFjdGl2aXR5LiBCdXQgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMgZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgcmVhbGx5IGhhdmUgY2F0YWx5dGljIGFjdGl2aXR5IG9uIHRoZWlyIG93bi4gTmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHNvbWUgaGF2ZSBtb3JlIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cHMgdGhhbiBvdGhlcnMuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBObyBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXBzIG9uIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IHNvbWUgaGF2ZSBtb3JlIGFtaW5vIGdyb3VwcyB0aGFuIG90aGVycy48L3A+CjxwPg==[f]IE5vLiBFdmVyeSBhbWlubyBhY2lkIGhhcyBvbmUgYW1pbm8gZ3JvdXBzIChhbmQgb25lIGNhcmJveHlsIGdybzwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|2039aa00283c5a” question_number=”232″ unit=”1.Chemistry of Life”] The nucleotide sequence below is part of the template strand for the gene coding protein Q. If, during DNA replication, a complementary nucleotide was transcribed from this sequence, what would be the complementary base for the nucleotide marked as * ?

[c]IEHigIPigIM=[c]IEPigIPigIM=[c]IEfigI PigIM=[c]IFTigIPigIM=[c]IFU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGNoZWNraW5nIHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkE6IEEgKGFkZW5pbmUpIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCAodGh5bWluZSk7IEMgKGN5dG9zaW5lKSBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUpLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGNoZWNraW5nIHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkE6IEEgKGFkZW5pbmUpIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCAodGh5bWluZSk7IEMgKGN5dG9zaW5lKSBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUpLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUgQyAoY3l0b3NpbmUpIGFsd2F5cyBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUpPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGNoZWNraW5nIHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkE6IEEgKGFkZW5pbmUpIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCAodGh5bWluZSk7IEMgKGN5dG9zaW5lKSBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUpLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiwgbm90IHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24uIFRoZSBSTkEgYmFzZSBVIChVcmFjaWwpIGlzbiYjODIxNzt0IGludm9sdmVkLiBUcnkgdGhpcyBhZ2FpbiwgZm9jdXNpbmcgb24gRE5BIHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkEuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|2030244386c05a” question_number=”235″] Within a polypeptide, the bond linking the monomers (indicated by the arrow and green circle below) is a(n) _________.

[c]IGlvbmljIGJvbmQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]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[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGJvbmQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]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[c]IHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZDwvcD4KPHA+ PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGJvbmQgdGhhdCBjb25uZWN0cyBhbWlubyBhY2lkcyB0b2dldGhlciB3aXRoaW4gYSBwb2x5cGVwdGlkZSBpcyBhIHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZC48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IFZhbiBkZXIgV2FhbHMgaW50ZXJhY3Rpb24uPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]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[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|202c913d45bc5a” question_number=”236″] One of the following molecules will, when mixed with water, organize itself into a bilayer. Which one?

[c]IDHigIPigIM=[c]IDLigIPigIM=[c]IDPigI PigIM=[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]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[f]IE5vLiAyIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSB3YXggbW9sZWN1bGUuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IGZvcm1zIGEgYmlsYXllciBoYXMgdHdvIGZhdHR5IGFjaWQgdGFpbHMsIGFuZCBhICYjODIyMDtoZWFkJiM4MjIxOyB0aGF0IGNvbnRhaW5zIGEgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]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[f]IE5vLiA0IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSB0cmlnbHljZXJpZGUsIHRoZSB0eXBlIG9mIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgb2lscyBhbmQgZmF0cy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgZm9ybXMgYSBiaWxheWVyIGhhcyA8ZW0+dHdvPC9lbT4gZmF0dHkgYWNpZCB0YWlscy48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|2026f00485705a” question_number=”237″] Which of the molecules below is a key component of cell membranes?

[c]IDHigIPigIM=[c]IDLigIPigIM=[c]IDPigI PigIM=[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiAxIGlzIGEgZmF0dHkgYWNpZC4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludC4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkLCBhbmQgdGhlICYjODIyMDtwaG9zcGhvJiM4MjIxOyBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBuYW1lIHN0YW5kcyBmb3IgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIGEgd2F4LiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQsIGFuZCB0aGUgJiM4MjIwO3Bob3NwaG8mIzgyMjE7IHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIG5hbWUgc3RhbmRzIGZvciBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXAuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]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[f]IE5vLiA0IGlzIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlIChhbHNvIGtub3duIGFzIGEgdHJpYWN5bGdseWNlcmlkZSk6IHRoZXNlIGFyZSB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRoYXQgbWFrZSB1cCBmYXRzIGFuZCBvaWxzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQsIGFuZCB0aGUgJiM4MjIwO3Bob3NwaG8mIzgyMjE7IHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIG5hbWUgc3RhbmRzIGZvciBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXAuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” zz=”1″ xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|2023ae7be4985a” question_number=”238″] Which of the molecules below is used for energy storage and insulation?

[c]IDHigIPigIM=[c]IDLigIPigIM=[c]IDPigIPigIM=[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbG Fzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiAxIGlzIGEgZmF0dHkgYWNpZC4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciwgd2hpY2ggaXMgYWxzbyBjYWxsZWQgYSB0cmlnbHljZXJpZGUuIFRoaW5rIG9mIHRoZSBwcmVmaXggJiM4MjIwO3RyaSwmIzgyMjE7IGFuZCB1c2UgdGhlIGhpbnQgSSBqdXN0IGdhdmUgeW91IHRvIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgdGhlIGFuc3dlciB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIGEgd2F4LCBhIGxpcGlkIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB1c2VkIGZvciB3YXRlcnByb29maW5nLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSB0cmlnbHljZXJpZGUsIGEgbW9sZWN1bGUgdGhhdCBoYXMgdGhyZWUgZmF0dHkgYWNpZHMuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkLiBUaGVzZSBtb2xlY3VsZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBrZXkgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBjb21wb25lbnQgb2YgY2VsbCBtZW1icmFuZXMuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBhIHRyaWdseWNlcmlkZSwgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IGhhcyB0aHJlZSBmYXR0eSBhY2lkcy48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiA0IGlzIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlLCBjb21tb25seSBrbm93biBhcyBhIGZhdCBvciBhbiBvaWwgKGRlcGVuZGluZyBvbiB0aGUgc3RydWN0dXJlIG9mIHRoZSBmYXR0eSBhY2lkcykuIFRoaXMgb25lJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBmYXQsIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGZhdHR5IGFjaWRzIGFyZSBhbGwgc2F0dXJhdGVkLjwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|2019bda520245a” question_number=”241″] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.
Molecules that would be categorized as lipids include

[c]IG9ubHkgQS48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiAzIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIG1ha2UgdXAgYSBwb2x5cGVwdGlkZSwgd2hpY2gsIHdoZW4gYSBiaXQgbG9uZ2VyIGFuZCBmb2xkZWQgdXAgaW50byBhIHNwZWNpZmljIHNoYXBlLCBiZWNvbWVzIGEgcHJvdGVpbi48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IG9ubHkgQi48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZSwgYSBidWlsZGluZyBibG9jayBvZiBudWNsZWljIGFjaWRzIGxpa2UgRE5BIG9yIFJOQS48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGJvdGggQSBhbmQgQi48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBXIGlzIGEgcG9seXBlcHRpZGUsIGFuZCBYIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IEEsIEIgYW5kIEMuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBBIGlzIGEgcG9seXBlcHRpZGUsIGFuZCBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4gYnV0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSByaWdodCBhYm91dCBDLCB3aGljaCBpcyBhIHBob3NwaG9saXBpZC48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IEMgYW5kIEQuPC9wPgo8cD48Yn IgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQm90aCBDIGFuZCBEIGFyZSBsaXBpZHMuIEMgaXMgYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQgYW5kIEQgaXMgYSB0cmlnbHljZXJpZGUgKHRoZSBraW5kIG9mIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgZmF0cyBhbmQgb2lscykuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|201672cc4fbc5a” question_number=”242″] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.
In a cell, molecule B’s function is

[c]IGVuY29kaW5nIGdlbmV0aWMgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24u PC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQiBpcyBhIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUuIE51Y2xlb3RpZGVzIGFyZSB0aGUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGxpa2UgRE5BIGFuZCBSTkEsIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHMgdGhhdCBzdG9yZSBhbmQgY29tbXVuaWNhdGUgZ2VuZXRpYyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbi48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHRyYW5zcG9ydGluZyBtYXRlcmlhbHMgaW50byB0aGUgY2VsbC48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4gTnVjbGVvdGlkZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBudWNsZWljIGFjaWRzLCB3aGljaCBpbmNsdWRlIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgbGlrZSBETkEgYW5kIFJOQS4gVGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlc2UgbW9sZWN1bGVzJiM4MjE3OyBmdW5jdGlvbiwgYW5kIHlvdSYjODIxNztsbCBoYXZlIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGxvbmcgdGVybSBzdG9yYWdlIG9mIGVuZXJneS48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBMb25nIHRlcm0gZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UgaXMgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIEQsIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlIChmYXQgb3Igb2lsKS4gQiBpcyBhIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUuTnVjbGVvdGlkZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBudWNsZWljIGFjaWRzLCB3aGljaCBpbmNsdWRlIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgbGlrZSBETkEgYW5kIFJOQS4gVGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlc2UgbW9sZWN1bGVzJiM4MjE3OyBmdW5jdGlvbiwgYW5kIHlvdSYjODIxNztsbCBoYXZlIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHN0YWJpbGl6aW5nIHRoZSBwbGFzbWEgbWVtYnJhbmU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBTdGFiaWxpemluZyB0aGUgcGxhc21hIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIHRoZSBmdW5jdGlvbiBvZiBjaG9sZXN0ZXJvbCwgd2hpY2ggaXMgbm90IHNob3duIGluIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGFib3ZlLiBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4gTnVjbGVvdGlkZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBudWNsZWljIGFjaWRzLCB3aGljaCBpbmNsdWRlIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgbGlrZSBETkEgYW5kIFJOQS4gVGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlc2UgbW9sZWN1bGVzJiM4MjE3OyBmdW5jdGlvbiwgYW5kIHlvdSYjODIxNztsbCBoYXZlIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|2013234b678c5a” question_number=”243″] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.
All of the molecules above are built from smaller subunits. As these subunits are being combined,

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Which molecule is synthesized at a ribosome?

[c]IEHigI PigIM=[c]IELigIPigIM=[c]IEPigIPigIM=[c]IEQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]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[f]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[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgMT8gPGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+PGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxNy8wNy8yOF9wcm90ZWluLXN5bnRoZXNpcy1mb3ItcHJvdGVpbi1tb2R1bGUtMzAweDE3Mi5wbmciIGFsdD0iIiB3aWR0aD0iMzAwIiBoZWlnaHQ9IjE3MiIgLz48L3A+CjxwPg==[f]IE5vLiBEIGlzIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgMT8gPGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+PGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxNy8wNy8yOF9wcm90ZWluLXN5bnRoZXNpcy1mb3ItcHJvdGVpbi1tb2R1bGUtMzAweDE3Mi5wbmciIGFsdD0iIiB3aWR0aD0iMzAwIiBoZWlnaHQ9IjE3MiIgLz48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” zz=”1″ xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|200a86636b205a” question_number=”245″] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.
Which molecule above forms the key structural component of the cell membrane?

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[c]IFRoZXkgaW5jcmVhc2UgdGhlIHZvbHVtZSBvZiBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIGNlbGxzLjwvcD4KPHA+[f]IE5vLiBWb2x1bWUgaXMgdGhlIGFtb3VudCBvZiBzcGFjZSBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGFrZXMgdXAuIFRoZSBjcmlzdGFlIGhhdmUgbm8gZWZmZWN0IG9uIHRoZSB2b2x1bWUuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgZGVjcmVhc2UgdGhlIHN1cmZhY2UgYXJlYSBvZiB0aGUgaW5uZXIgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBtZW1icmFuZS48L3A+CjxwPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGluZ3Mgd2l0aCBsb3RzIG9mIGZvbGRzIGhhdmUgbG90cyBvZiBzdXJmYWNlIGFyZWEsIGNvbXBhcmVkIHdpdGggdGhpbmdzIHRoYXQgYXJlIHNtb290aC48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgaW5jcmVhc2UgdGhlIHN1cmZhY2UgYXJlYSBvZiB0aG UgaW5uZXIgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBtZW1icmFuZS48L3A+CjxwPg==[f]IEJpbmdvISBUaGluZ3Mgd2l0aCBsb3RzIG9mIGZvbGRzIGhhdmUgbG90cyBvZiBzdXJmYWNlIGFyZWEsIGNvbXBhcmVkIHdpdGggdGhpbmdzIHRoYXQgYXJlIHNtb290aC4gQXMgd2UmIzgyMTc7bGwgYmUgbGVhcm5pbmcsIHRoYXQgcHJvdmlkZXMgbG90cyBvZiByb29tIGZvciBtZW1icmFuZSBlbWJlZGRlZCBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIGVuenltZXMgdGhhdCBjYXJyeSBvdXQgY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20ec3053e1505a” question_number=”178″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function”] Which of the following features can be used to distinguish between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?

[c]IEROQSBpcyBwcmVzZW50IGluIHRoZSBjZWxsLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBCb3RoIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgRE5BLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IFRoZXJlIGlzIGEgcmlnaWQgY2VsbCB3YWxsLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIHRoZXJlIGFyZSBhIGZldyBwcm9rYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyAoZ2VudXMgbXljb3BsYXNtYSkgdGhhdCBsYWNrIGEgY2VsbCB3YWxsLCBhbmQgYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgYW5pbWFsIGNlbGxzIGxhY2sgY2VsbCB3YWxscywgeW91IGNhbiYjODIxNzt0IHVzZSB0aGUgcHJlc2VuY2Ugb2YgYSBjZWxsIHdhbGwgYXMgYSBkaXN0aW5ndWlzaGluZyBmZWF0dXJlLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IFJpYm9zb21lcyBhcmUgcHJlc2VudCBpbiB0aGUgY2VsbC48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBCb3RoIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgcmlib3NvbWUuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIGNhcnJpZXMgb3V0IGNlbGx1bGFyIG1ldGFib2xpc20uPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBCb3RoIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGNhcnJ5IG91dCBjZWxsdWxhciBtZXRhYm9saXNtLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIGRpdmlkZWQgYnkgaW50ZXJuYWwgbWVt YnJhbmVzLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IFRlcnJpZmljLiBXaGlsZSBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGFyZSBkaXZpZGVkIGJ5IGludGVybmFsIG1lbWJyYW5lcywgcHJva2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbHMgYXJlIG5vdC48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20f7cd9331a45a” question_number=”175″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function”] Which of the following organelles is correctly paired with its function in a cell?

[c]IEx5c29zb21lLCBjZWxsdWxhciBtb3ZlbWVudDwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBMeXNvc29tZXMgYXJlIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBpbnRyYWNlbGx1bGFyIGRpZ2VzdGlvbi4gQ2VsbHVsYXIgbW92ZW1lbnQgaXMgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIGZsYWdlbGxhIG9yIGNpbGlhLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IFJpYm9zb21lLCBtYW51ZmFjdHVyaW5nIG9mIGxpcGlkczwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBSaWJvc29tZXMgYXJlIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBwcm90ZWluIHN5bnRoZXNpcy4gTWFudWZhY3R1cmluZyBsaXBpZHMgaXMgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSBzbW9vdGggZW5kb3BsYXNtaWMgcmV0aWN1bHVtLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IENlbnRyYWwgdmFjdW9sZSwgc3RvcmFnZSBvZiBtYXRlcmlhbHMg YW5kIHdhc3RlPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgVGhlIGNlbnRyYWwgdmFjdW9sZSYjODIxNztzIGZ1bmN0aW9uIGlzIHN0b3JhZ2Ugb2YgbWF0ZXJpYWxzIGFuZCB3YXN0ZSBwcm9kdWN0cy4gVGhpcyBvcmdhbmVsbGUgaXMgZm91bmQgb25seSBpbiBwbGFudHMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IE51Y2xldXMsIHdoZXJlIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIG9jY3VyczwvcD4KPHA+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIG51Y2xldXMgaXMgdG8gaG9sZCBhbmQgcHJvdGVjdCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcy4gQ2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24gb2NjdXJzIGluIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYS48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IE1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24sIHdoZXJlIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIG9jY3VyczwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSBpcyBwcm9kdWN0aW9uIG9mIEFUUC4gUGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgb2NjdXJzIGluIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cy48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”SMV_AP_Bio_Multiple_Choice_Practice_2018|225a0d1a21b5cf” question_number=”176″ unit=”Cells, Membranes”] Which of the following features applies to both chloroplasts and mitochondria?

Chloroplast Mitochondrion

I. Synthesizes its own protein.
II. Contains a small amount of DNA
III. Not part of the endomembrane system
IV. Can reproduce themselves

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[c]IEx5c29zb21lLCByb3VnaCBFUiwgdmFjdW9sZTwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbHlzb3NvbWUgaXMgYSBkaWdlc3RpdmUgb3JnYW5lbGxlLCBhbmQgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSB2YWN1b2xlIGlzIHN0b3JhZ2UuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IEx5c29zb21lLCByaWJvc29tZSwgdmFjdW9sZTwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbHlzb3NvbWUgaXMgYSBkaWdlc3RpdmUgb3JnYW5lbGxlLCBhbmQgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSB2YWN1b2xlIGlzIHN0b3JhZ2UuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IFJpYm9zb21lLCByb3VnaCBFUiwgc21vb3RoIEVS PC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IFBlcmZlY3QuIFRoZSByaWJvc29tZSBtYWtlcyBwcm90ZWluczsgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEVSIG1ha2VzIHByb3RlaW5zIHRoYXQgYXJlIGRlc2lnbmF0ZWQgZm9yIGV4cG9ydCwgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lLCBvciBseXNvc29tZXM7IHRoZSBzbW9vdGggRS5SLiBtYWtlcyBsaXBpZHMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IFJpYm9zb21lLCBzbW9vdGggRVIuIHZhY3VvbGU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdmFjdW9sZSBpcyBhIHN0b3JhZ2Ugb3JnYW5lbGxlLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IFJvdWdoIEVSLCBzbW9vdGggRVIsIHZhY3VvbGU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdmFjdW9sZSBpcyBhIHN0b3JhZ2Ugb3JnYW5lbGxlLjwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20e918b416805a” question_number=”179″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function”] Which of the following components are found in all prokaryotic cells?

  1. Ribosomes
  2. Plasma membrane
  3. Genetic information

 

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[c]IHJpYm9zb21lczwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBSaWJvc29tZXMgc3ludGhlc2l6ZSBwcm90ZWlucy4gVGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBub3QgZGlyZWN0bHkgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gdHJhbnNwb3J0LjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IFZlc2ljbGVzIGNyZWF0ZWQgYnkgZW5kb2N5dG9zaXM8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBWZXNpY2xlcyBjcmVhdGVkIGJ5IGVuZG9jeXRvc2lzIGJyaW5nIG1hdGVyaWFsIGZyb20gb3V0c2lkZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCB0byB0aGUgaW5zaWRlIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBUaHJlZSB0eXBlcyBvZiBlbmRvY3l0b3NpcyBhcmUgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cuIDxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPjxpbnB1dCBuYW1lPSJxd2l6X2ltZyIgY2xhc3M9ImFsaWdubm9uZSB3cC1pbWFnZS00NTI0ICIgc3JjPSJodHRwczovL3NjaWVuY2VtdXNpY3ZpZGVvcy5jb20vd3AtY29udGVudC91cGxvYWRzLzIwMTQvMTEvMTJfZW5kb2N5dG9zaXMucG5nIiBhbHQ9IiIgd2lkdGg9IjQ2MSIgaGVpZ2h0PSIyMDYiIC8+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IFZlc2ljbGVzIGZyb20gdGhlIEdvbGdpPC9w Pgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIFZlc2ljbGVzIGZyb20gdGhlIEdvbGdpICgxLCBiZWxvdykgYXJlIHVzZWQgdG8gdHJhbnNwb3J0IG1hdGVyaWFscyBvdXQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwuIDxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPjxpbnB1dCBuYW1lPSJxd2l6X2ltZyIgY2xhc3M9ImFsaWdubm9uZSB3cC1pbWFnZS00NTE1IiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxNC8xMS8xMF9leG9jeXRvc2lzLnBuZyIgYWx0PSIiIHdpZHRoPSI0NzUiIGhlaWdodD0iMjc3IiAvPjwvcD4KPHA+Jm5ic3A7PC9wPgo8cD4mbmJzcDs8L3A+CjxwPiZuYnNwOzwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20e01eaa3e745a” question_number=”182″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function”] In humans lungs, the respiratory cycle involves an inhalation followed by an exhalation. In this type of system, the lungs are never entirely flushed with fresh air. As a result, the oxygen concentration in human lungs is about 56% that of the outside air.
In sparrows and other birds, the lungs maintain a one-way flow of air using a series of air sacs. As a result, a sparrow’s lungs can be entirely flushed with fresh air.
A sparrow can obtain more oxygen from outside air than a human can because the sparrow’s gas exchange system has

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Which of the following actions would have the greatest effect on decreasing the body temperature of an elephant in extremely hot conditions?

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Which of the following statements is supported by the data in the graph?

[c]IEFsY29ob2wgaXMgbGVzcyBsaXBpZC1zb2x1YmxlIHRoYW4gd2F0ZXIuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBGaXJzdCwga2VlcCBpbiBtaW5kIHRoZSBmYWN0IHRoYXQgb2lsIGlzIGEgbGlwaWQsIHNvIHRoZSBYIGF4aXMgb24gdGhpcyBncmFwaCBpcyBzaG93aW5nIGxpcGlkIHNvbHViaWxpdHkuIEtub3dpbmcgdGhhdCwgdGFrZSBhbm90aGVyIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGdyYXBoLiBXaGljaCBpcyBtb3JlIGxpcGlkIHNvbHVibGUgKGZ1cnRoZXIgdG8gdGhlIHJpZ2h0IG9uIHRoZSBYIGF4aXMpOiB3YXRlciBvciBhbGNvaG9sPzwvcD4KPHA+[c]IEV4Y2VzcyB3YXRlciBjYW4gZGlmZnVzZSBvdXQgb2YgYSBjZWxsIGZhc3 RlciB0aGFuIHVyZWEuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2F0ZXIgaGFzIGEgaGlnaGVyIHBlcm1lYWJpbGl0eSBjb2VmZmljaWVudCB0aGFuIHVyZWE7IHRoZXJlZm9yZSwgd2F0ZXIgd291bGQgbW9yZSBlYXNpbHR5IG1vdmUgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgY2VsbCBtZW1icmFuZS48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IERpZXRoeWx1cmVhIGNhbiBtb3JlIGVhc2lseSBtb3ZlIHRocm91Z2ggYSBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5lIHRoYW4gYWxjb2hvbC48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24gdGhhdCB0aGUgcGVybWVhYmlsaXR5IGNvZWZmaWNpZW50IG1lYXN1cmVzIHRoZSBlYXNlIHdpdGggd2hpY2ggYSBzdWJzdGFuY2UgbW92ZXMgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUuIExvb2sgYXQgdGhlIFkgYXhpczogd2hpY2ggbW9sZWN1bGUsIGRpZXRoeWx1cmVhIG9yIGFsY29ob2wsIGhhcyBhIGhpZ2hlciBwZXJtZWFiaWxpdHkgY29lZmZpY2llbnQ/IFdoaWNoIG9uZSB3b3VsZCBtb3JlIGVhc2lseSBtb3ZlIHRocm91Z2ggdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lPzwvcD4KPHA+[c]IEV0aHlsZW5lIGdseWNvbCBjYW4gbW9yZSBlYXNpbHkgbW92ZSB0aHJvdWdoIGEgY2VsbCBtZW1icmFuZSB0aGFuIGNvZGVpbmUuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24gdGhhdCB0aGUgcGVybWVhYmlsaXR5IGNvZWZmaWNpZW50IG1lYXN1cmVzIHRoZSBlYXNlIHdpdGggd2hpY2ggYSBzdWJzdGFuY2UgbW92ZXMgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUuIExvb2sgYXQgdGhlIFkgYXhpczogd2hpY2ggbW9sZWN1bGUsIGV0aHlsZW5lIGdseWNvbCBvciBjb2RlaW5lLCBoYXMgYSBoaWdoZXIgcGVybWVhYmlsaXR5IGNvZWZmaWNpZW50PyBXaGljaCBvbmUgd291bGQgbW9yZSBlYXNpbHkgbW92ZSB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZT88L3A+CjxwPiZuYnNwOzwvcD4KPHA+Jm5ic3A7PC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[q json=”true” xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”SMV_AP_Bio_Multiple_Choice_Practice_2018|220ae5d9e599cf” question_number=”209″ unit=”Cells, Membranes”] The model below depicts a cell membrane. What structures are labelled I, II, and III in the model?

[c]IEdseWNvcHJvdGVpbiwgcGVyaXBoZXJhbCBwcm90ZWluLCBoeWRyb3Bob2JpYyBwaG9zcGhhdGUgaGVhZDwvcD4KPHAgc3R5bGU9ImxldHRlci1zcGFjaW5nOiAwLjhweDsiPg==[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgSS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBoZWFkIGF0IElJSSBpbiB0b3VjaGluZyB0aGUgY3l0b3BsYXNtLiBUaGUgY3l0b3BsYXNtIGlzIG1vc3RseSB3YXRlci4gV291bGQgdGhhdCBtYWtlIHRoZSBwaG9zcGhhdGUgaGVhZCA8ZW0+aHlkcm9waG9iaWM8L2VtPiBvciA8ZW0+aHlkcm9waGlsaWM8L2VtPj88L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IFBlcmlwaGVyYWwgcHJvdGVpbiwgZ2x5Y29wcm90ZWluLCBoeWRyb3BoaWxpYyBwaG9zcGhhdGUgaGVhZDwvcD4KPHA+PHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9ImxldHRlci1zcGFjaW5nOiAwLjhweDsiPiA=[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgSUlJLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgcHJvdGVpbiBhdCBJIGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgaXQgaGFzIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgY2hhaW4gYXR0YWNoZWQgdG8gaXQuIFRoZSBuYW1lIGZvciBhbiBpbXBvcnRhbnQgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgaW4gYW5pbWFscyBpcyA8ZW0+Z2x5Y288L2VtPmdlbi4gSWYgYSA8L3NwYW4+PHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9ImxldHRlci1zcGFjaW5nOiAwLjhweDsiPmdseWNvZ2VuIGFuZCA8L3NwYW4+PHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9ImxldHRlci1zcGFjaW5nOiAwLjhweDsiPnByb3RlaW4gaGFkIGEgYmFieSwgd2hhdCB3b3VsZCB0aGV5IGNhbGwgaXQ/PC9zcGFuPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IEdseWNvcHJvdGVpbiwgaW50ZWdyYWwgcHJvdGVpbiwgaH lkcm9waGlsaWMgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGhlYWQ8L3A+CjxwPg==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgWW91IGtub3cgeW91ciBtZW1icmFuZXMhPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IEludGVncmFsIHByb3RlaW4sIHBlcmlwaGVyYWwgcHJvdGVpbiwgaHlkcm9waG9iaWMgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGhlYWQ8L3A+CjxwPg==[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGhlYWQgYXQgSUlJIGluIHRvdWNoaW5nIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20uIFRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gaXMgbW9zdGx5IHdhdGVyLiBXb3VsZCB0aGF0IG1ha2UgdGhlIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBoZWFkIDxlbT5oeWRyb3Bob2JpYzwvZW0+IG9yIDxlbT5oeWRyb3BoaWxpYzwvZW0+PzwvcD4KPHA+[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20872bd3fc245a” question_number=”208″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function”] Which of the following is a correct route for flow of materials in the endomembrane system?

[c]IEdvbGdpIHRvIGx5c29zb21lIHRvIEVSIHRvIHBsYXNtYSBtZW1icmFuZTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[c]IFJvdWdoIEVSIHRvIHZlc2ljbGVzIHRvIEdvbGdpIHRvIHBsYXNt YSBtZW1icmFuZTwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBZb3UgY2xlYXJseSBoYXZlIGEgZ29vZCB1bmRlcnN0YW5kaW5nIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsJiM4MjE3O3MgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbSAoc2hvd24gYmVsb3cpIDxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPjxpbnB1dCBuYW1lPSJxd2l6X2ltZyIgY2xhc3M9ImFsaWdubm9uZSBzaXplLWZ1bGwgd3AtaW1hZ2UtMTY1MzUiIHNyYz0iaHR0cHM6Ly9zY2llbmNlbXVzaWN2aWRlb3MuY29tL3dwLWNvbnRlbnQvdXBsb2Fkcy8yMDE4LzA1L051Y2xldXNfRVJfZ29sZ2lfbHlzb3NvbWVfbWVtYnJhbmUtZTE1MjY4MzM3NzcyMjYucG5nIiBhbHQ9IiIgd2lkdGg9IjQ5NiIgaGVpZ2h0PSIzODkiIHNyY3NldD0iaHR0cHM6Ly9zY2llbmNlbXVzaWN2aWRlb3MuY29tL3dwLWNvbnRlbnQvdXBsb2Fkcy8yMDE4LzA1L051Y2xldXNfRVJfZ29sZ2lfbHlzb3NvbWVfbWVtYnJhbmUtZTE1MjY4MzM3NzcyMjYucG5nIDQ5NncsIGh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNS9OdWNsZXVzX0VSX2dvbGdpX2x5c29zb21lX21lbWJyYW5lLWUxNTI2ODMzNzc3MjI2LTE1MHgxMTgucG5nIDE1MHcsIGh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNS9OdWNsZXVzX0VSX2dvbGdpX2x5c29zb21lX21lbWJyYW5lLWUxNTI2ODMzNzc3MjI2LTMwMHgyMzUucG5nIDMwMHcsIGh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNS9OdWNsZXVzX0VSX2dvbGdpX2x5c29zb21lX21lbWJyYW5lLWUxNTI2ODMzNzc3MjI2LTI2MHgyMDQucG5nIDI2MHcsIGh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNS9OdWNsZXVzX0VSX2dvbGdpX2x5c29zb21lX21lbWJyYW5lLWUxNTI2ODMzNzc3MjI2LTE2MHgxMjUucG5nIDE2MHciIHNpemVzPSIobWF4LXdpZHRoOiA0OTZweCkgMTAwdncsIDQ5NnB4IiAvPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IEVSIHRvIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cyB0byBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uIHRvIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]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[c]IE51Y2xlYXIgZW52ZWxvcGUgdG8gbHlzb3NvbWUgdG8gR29sZ2kgdG8gcGxhc21hIG1lbWJyYW5lPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBTdHVkeSB0aGUgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSwgSiBpcyBhIEx5c29zb21lLCBhbmQgQyBpcyB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRVIuIFRoZSBhcnJvd3MgaW5kaWNhdGUgdGhlIGRpcmVjdGlvbiB0aGF0IG1hdGVyaWFsIGlzIGZsb3dpbmcuIDxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPjxpbnB1dCBuYW1lPSJxd2l6X2ltZyIgc3JjPSJodHRwczovL3NjaWVuY2VtdXNpY3ZpZGVvcy5jb20vd3AtY29udGVudC91cGxvYWRzLzIwMTgvMDUvTnVjbGV1c19FUl9nb2xnaV9seXNvc29tZV9tZW1icmFuZS5wbmciIGFsdD0iIiB3aWR0aD0iNTI1IiBoZWlnaHQ9IjQxMiIgLz48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”SMV_AP_Bio_Multiple_Choice_Practice_2018|2203e2ba15edcf” question_number=”211″ unit=”Cells, Membranes”] Which of the following models best represents the arrangement of phospholipids in a cell membrane?

 

[c]IEHigI PigIM=[c]IELigIPigIM=[c]IEPigIPigIM=[c]IEQ8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]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[f]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[f]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[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IGZvciBtb3N0IGNlbGxzLCBhYm92ZSBhbmQgYmVsb3cgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGFyZSBzb2x1dGlvbnMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbW9zdGx5IHdhdGVyICh0aGUgY2VsbCBleHRlcmlvciwgYW5kIHRoZSBjeXRvc29sKS4gUmVhZCB0aGVzZSBseXJpY3MgZnJvbSBteSBNZW1icmFuZXMhIFJhcCwgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgdGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgYXJyYW5nZW1lbnQ6IDxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPjxlbT48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iZm9udC1zaXplOiAxMHB0OyI+Q2F1c2Ugd2hlbiBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzIGludG8gd2F0ZXIgZ2V0IHN1Ym1lcmdlZCw8YnIgLz4KPC9zcGFuPjwvZW0+PGVtPjxzcGFuIHN0eWxlPSJmb250LXNpemU6IDEwcHQ7Ij5BIHBob3NwaG9saXBpZCBiaWxheWVyIHN0cnVjdHVyZSB3aWxsIGVtZXJnZTxiciAvPgo8L3NwYW4+PC9lbT48ZW0+PHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9ImZvbnQtc2l6ZTogMTBwdDsiPlRoZSB0YWlscyBoYW5nIHRvZ2V0aGVyIGluIGEgd2F0ZXIgZnJlZSB6b25lLDwvc3Bhbj48L2VtPjxlbT48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iZm9udC1zaXplOiAxMHB0OyI+SGVhciB0aGVpciBoeWRyb3Bob2JpYyBtb2FuLCDigJx3YXRlciBsZWF2ZSBtZSBhbG9uZSHigJ08YnIgLz4KPC9zcGFuPjwvZW0+PGVtPjxzcGFuIHN0eWxlPSJmb250LXNpemU6IDEwcHQ7Ij5XaGlsZSB0aGUgaGVhZHMgYXJlIHN0aWNraW5nIG91dCB0b3VjaGluZyBhbGwgdGhvc2UgSDxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPk9zPGJyIC8+Cjwvc3Bhbj48L2VtPjxlbT48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iZm9udC1zaXplOiAxMHB0OyI+VGFpbHMgaW4sIGhlYWRzIG91dCwgaXTigJlzIGhvdyBldmVyeSBtZW1icmFuZSBnb2VzPGJyIC8+Cjwvc3Bhbj48L2VtPjxlbT48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iZm9udC1zaXplOiAxMHB0OyI+VGFpbHMgaW4sIGhlYWRzIG91dCwgaW4gYSBjZWxsdWxhciBzcGhlcmUsPGJyIC8+Cjwvc3Bhbj48L2VtPjxlbT48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iZm9udC1zaXplOiAxMHB0OyI+SXTigJlzIHRoZSBiaWxheWVyZWQgYmFzaXMgb2YgbWVtYnJhbmVzIGV2ZXJ5d2hlcmUuPC9zcGFuPjwvZW0+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”SMV_AP_Bio_Multiple_Choice_Practice_2018|220072a08745cf” question_number=”212″ unit=”Cells, Membranes”] Five sucrose-impermeable dialysis bags were filled with different concentrations of sucrose solution. Each bag was placed in a separate beaker that contained a 0.6 M sucrose solution. The bags were weighed every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. The results for each bag, DB1 through DB5, are shown in the graph below as percent mass change over time. Which lines in the graph represent dialysis bags that contain a hypertonic solution at 30 minutes?

 

[c]IERCMjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIG NsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IFllcy4gTm90aWNlIHRoYXQgdGhlIG1hc3MgaW4gREIyIGlzIGluY3JlYXNpbmcuIFRoYXQgaW5jcmVhc2UgaXMgYmVjYXVzZSBvZiBvc21vc2lzLCBhcyB3YXRlciBmbG93cyBmcm9tIHRoZSAwLjYgbW9sYXIgc29sdXRpb24gaW4gdGhlIGJlYWtlciBpbnRvIHRoZSBiYWcgKHdoaWNoIG11c3QgYmUgaHlwZXJ0b25pYyB0byB0aGUgMC42IE0gc29sdXRpb24pPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IERCMzwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBEQjMmIzgyMTc7cyBtYXNzIGhhcyBzdGF5ZWQgY29uc3RhbnQsIGFsbG93aW5nIHlvdSB0byBjb25jbHVkZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBzb2x1dGlvbiBpbnNpZGUgaXQgaXMgaXNvdG9uaWMgdG8gdGhlIDAuNiBNIHNvbHV0aW9uIGluIHRoZSBiZWFrZXIuIEZpbmQgdGhlIGJhZyB0aGF0IGlzIGdhaW5pbmcgbWFzcywgYmVjYXVzZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIG9uZSB3aXRoIGEgc29sdXRpb24gdGhhdCBtdXN0IGJlIGh5cGVydG9uaWMgdG8gdGhlIDAuNiBNIHNvbHV0aW9uIGluIHRoZSBiZWFrZXIuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IERCNDwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBEQjQgaXMgbG9zaW5nIG1hc3MuIFRoaXMgbG9zcyBpcyBhIGNvbnNlcXVlbmNlIG9mIG9zbW9zaXMsIGFzIHdhdGVyIG1vdmVzIGZyb20gdGhlIGh5cG90b25pYyBzb2x1dGlvbiBpbiB0aGUgYmFnIGludG8gdGhlIGJlYWtlci4gRmluZCB0aGUgYmFnIHRoYXQgaXMgZ2FpbmluZyBtYXNzLCBiZWNhdXNlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgb25lIHdpdGggYSBzb2x1dGlvbiB0aGF0IG11c3QgYmUgaHlwZXJ0b25pYyB0byB0aGUgMC42IE0gc29sdXRpb24gaW4gdGhlIGJlYWtlci48L3A+CjxwPiZuYnNwOzwvcD4KPHA+Jm5ic3A7PC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|206b115c761c5a” question_number=”217″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function”] The body temperature of small ectothermic (“cold-blooded”) animals, such as a small fish, is dependent on the temperature of their environment. Large ectothermic animals, like sea turtles, can retain their body heat to remain warmer than their environment. Which of the following reasons best explains why large ectothermic animals can retain heat?

[c]IExhcmdlciBzdXJmYWNlL3ZvbHVtZSByYXRpbzwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]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[c]IFNtYWxsZXIgc3VyZmFjZS92b2x1bWUgcmF0aW88 L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IFllcy4gQmVjYXVzZSBzdXJmYWNlIGFyZWEgaXMgYSBzcXVhcmUgZnVuY3Rpb24gYW5kIHZvbHVtZSBpcyBhIGN1YmljIGZ1bmN0aW9uLCB0aGVuIHRoZSBsYXJnZXIgYW4gb3JnYW5pc20gaXMgdGhlIGxlc3Mgc3VyZmFjZSBhcmVhIGl0IGhhcyByZWxhdGl2ZSB0byBpdHMgdm9sdW1lLiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBtdWNoIGhhcmRlciBmb3IgbGFyZ2VyIGFuaW1hbHMgdG8gZGlmZnVzZSBoZWF0IG91dCBvZiB0aGVpciBib2RpZXMsIHdoaWNoIGV4cGxhaW5zIHdoeSBsYXJnZSBlY3RvdGhlcm1pYyBhbmltYWxzIGNhbiByZXRhaW4gaGVhdC48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IEhpZ2hlciBtZXRhYm9saWMgcmF0ZSBwZXIgZ3JhbSBvZiBib2R5IG1hc3MuPC9wPgo8cD4=[f]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[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1ffdaed1d5905a” question_number=”248″] Which letter in the diagram below represents a ribosome?

 

[c]IEHigIPigIM=[c]IELigIPigIM=[c]IEPigIPigIM=[c]IETigIPigIM=[c]IEU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbG Fzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBBIGlzIHRoZSBSb3VnaCBFbmRvcGxhc21pYyBSZXRpY3VsdW0uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBtYWtpbmcgaXQgcm91Z2g/PC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBCIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwcm90ZWluIChvciBhbm90aGVyIHN1YnN0YW5jZSkgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGJlZW4gZXhwb3J0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbC4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIGFuc3dlciBpcyByZWZlcnJpbmcgdG8gdGhlIHBhcnRpY2xlcyB0aGF0IG1ha2UgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEUuUi4gcm91Z2guPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIGEgdmVzaWNsZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYnVkZGVkIG9mZiBvZiB0aGUgR29sZ2kgYXBwYXJhdHVzLkhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgcmVmZXJyaW5nIHRvIHRoZSBwYXJ0aWNsZXMgdGhhdCBtYWtlIHRoZSByb3VnaCBFLlIuIHJvdWdoLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IE5vLiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSBBcHBhcmF0dXMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgcmVmZXJyaW5nIHRvIHRoZSBwYXJ0aWNsZXMgdGhhdCBtYWtlIHRoZSByb3VnaCBFLlIuIHJvdWdoLjwvcD4KPHA+PGJyIGNsYXNzPSJiaWdnZXIiIC8+[f]IEZhbnRhc3RpYy4gRSByZWZlcnMgdG8gdGhlIGRvdHMgb24gdGhlIFJvdWdoIEVuZG9wbGFzbWljIHJldGljdWx1bS4gVGhlc2UgZG90cyAod2hpY2ggbWFrZSB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRS5SLiByb3VnaCkgYXJlIHJpYm9zb21lcy48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells, Membranes” dataset_id=”SMV_AP_Bio_Multiple_Choice_Practice_2018|1a30a44792a46d” question_number=”251″] The cell below is from an animal. By looking at its structure, you could predict that 

[c]IGl0IHByb2R1Y2VzIGEgbG90IG9mIGdsdWNvc2UgdGhyb3VnaCBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGFuIGFuaW1hbCBjZWxsLCBzbyB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG5vIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoZSBvcmdhbmVsbGVzIGZpbGxpbmcgdXAgdGhpcyBjZWxsIGFyZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEuPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHJlcXVpcmUgaGlnaCBsZXZlbH Mgb2Ygb3h5Z2VuLjwvcD4KPHA+[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIG9yZ2FuZWxsZXMgdGhhdCBhcmUgZmlsbGluZyB1cCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgYXJlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYS4gVGhlaXIga2V5IHJvbGUgaXMgQVRQIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gZnJvbSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiwgYSB0b3BpYyB3ZSYjODIxNztsbCBiZSBsZWFybmluZyBhYm91dCBkdXJpbmcgdGhpcyB0ZXJtLiBBIGNlbGwgd2l0aCB0aGlzIG1hbnkgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIHdvdWxkIG5lZWQgYSBsb3Qgb2Ygb3h5Z2VuLjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGNvbnZlcnQgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaW50byBnbHVjb3NlPC9wPgo8cD4=[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHdvdWxkIGJlIGEgZ3JlYXQgYW5zd2VyIGlmIHRoZSBjZWxsIHdlcmUgZnVsbCBvZiBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMsIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGV4YWN0bHkgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGR1cmluZyBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIG9yZ2FuZWxsZXMgZmlsbGluZyB1cCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgYXJlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYS48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” zz=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1fb2ec2408a05a” question_number=”263″] Which letter in the diagram below represents the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

[c]IEHigI PigIM=[c]IELigIPigIM=[c]IEPigIPigIM=[c]IETigIPigIM=[c]IEU8L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBBIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEUuUi48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiAob3Igb3RoZXIgc3Vic3RhbmNlKSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYmVpbmcgZXhwb3J0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbCB0aHJvdWdoIGV4b2N5dG9zaXMuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIGEgdmVzaWNsZSwgbW92aW5nIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgZnJvbSB0aGUgR29sZ2kgQXBwYXJhdHVzIHRvIChpbiB0aGlzIGNhc2UpIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZS48L3A+CjxwPjxiciBjbGFzcz0iYmlnZ2VyIiAvPg==[f]IE5vLiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSBBcHBhcmF0dXMuPC9wPgo8cD48YnIgY2xhc3M9ImJpZ2dlciIgLz4=[f]IE5vLiBFIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyByaWJvc29tZXMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q json=”true” xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”SMV_AP_Bio_Multiple_Choice_Practice_2018|123c805924cbb3″ question_number=”301″ unit=”Cells, Membranes”] Amoebas are unicellular protists that are found in aquatic environments. One of these environments (X) is the amoeba’s natural environment. Environments Y and Z have been experimentally manipulated.
Based on the information above, environment Y must be ________ to the amoeba’s natural environment.

 

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The images that follow are simplified representations of amoebas, showing only the membrane and the nucleus. The letters X, Y, and Z represent the amoeba’s environment. Environments X is the amoeba’s natural environmen, while environments Y and Z have been experimentally manipulated.

The most likely explanation for what’s happening to the amoeba in environment Z is that

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Quiz 2: Guided Recall and Fill-in-the-Blanks

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Units 2 and 2 Guided Recall” style=”width: 600px !important;”]

[h] AP Bio Units 1 and 2 Guided Recall Questions

[i] Each guided recall question starts by posing a question. Here’s how to maximize your learning.

  1. Say the answer out loud to yourself.
  2. Click “Show me the answer.”
  3. Carefully read the sample answer, comparing it to what you said.
  4. If you knew the answer, click “got it.”
  5. Otherwise, click “need more practice.”

In addition, there are fill-in-the-blank questions.

[q] Explain how hydrogen bonds come about from water’s chemical structure, and describe hydrogen bonds.

[c]IFNob3cgbWUgdGhlIGFuc3dl cjwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwPg==[f]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[q] Explain why it takes a lot of energy to make water evaporate. How do some organisms use this as an adaptation?

[c]IFNob3cgbWUgdGhlIGFuc3dl cjwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwPg==[f]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[q] In terms of hydrogen ions, hydroxide ions, and pH, describe the difference between an acidic and a basic solution.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IEFjaWRpYyBzb2x1dGlvbnMgaGF2ZSBtb3JlIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGlvbnMgKHByb3RvbnMgb3IgSCspIHRoYW4gaHlkcm94aWRlIGlvbnMgKHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIGJ5IE9ILSkgVGhlIHBIIG9mIGFuIGFjaWRpYyBzb2x1dGlvbiBpcyBiZWxvdyA3LiBCYXNlcyBhcmUgc3Vic3RhbmNlcyB0aGF0IGhhdmUgbW9yZSBoeWRyb3hpZGUgaW9ucyB0aGFuIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGlvbnMsIGFuZCB0aGVpciBwSCBpcyBhYm92ZSA3LjwvcD4KPHA+[q] Describe the functions of  monosaccharides and disaccharides.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IENhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMgY29uc2lzdCBvZiBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMsIGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMsIGFuZCBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZXMuIE1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcyBzdWNoIGFzIGdsdWNvc2UgYXJlIG9mdGVuIGVuZXJneSBzb3VyY2VzLCBwb3dlcmluZyBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gR2x1Y29zZSBpcyBhbHNvIHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLCBzbyBpdOKAmXMgdGhlIHdheSB0aGF0IGNhcmJvbiwgdGhlIGNlbnRyYWwgYXRvbSBpbiBsaXZpbmcgdGhpbmdzLCBlbnRlcnMgdGhlIGJpb3NwaGVyZS4gRGlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcyBsaWtlIGxhY3Rvc2UgYW5kIHN1Y3Jvc2UgYXJlIG9mdGVuIHVzZWQgZm9yIGVuZXJneSB0cmFuc2ZlciAobGFjdG9zZSB0cmFuc2ZlcnMgZW5lcmd5IGZyb20gYSBtYW1tYWxpYW4gbW90aGVyIHRvIGhlciBvZmZzcHJpbmc7IHN1Y3Jvc2UgdHJhbnNmZXJzIGVuZXJneSBmcm9tIHRoZSBsZWF2ZXMgb2YgYSBwbGFudCB0byBvdGhlciwgbm9uLXBob3Rvc3ludGhldGljIHBhcnRzKS4gUG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGxpa2Ugc3RhcmNoIGFuZCBnbHljb2dlbiBhcmUgdXNlZCBmb3IgZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UgKHN0YXJjaCBpbiBwbGFudHMsIGdseWNvZ2VuIGluIGFuaW1hbHMpLCB3aGlsZSBjZWxsdWxvc2UgaXMgdXNlZCB0byBidWlsZCB0aGUgY2VsbCB3YWxscyBvZiBwbGFudHMuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q] Describe the basic chemistry, overall structure, and biological importance of lipids.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IExpcGlkcyBhcmUgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRoYXQgYXJlIGVpdGhlciBub24tcG9sYXIsIG9yIGhhdmUgbGFyZ2Ugbm9ucG9sYXIgcmVnaW9ucy4gTWFueSBsaXBpZHMgYXJlIGJ1aWx0IG9mIG9uZSBvciBtb3JlIGZhdHR5IGFjaWRzLCB3aGljaCBhcmUgaHlkcm9jYXJib24gY2hhaW5zIHRoYXQgdGVybWluYXRlIGluIGEgY2FyYm94eWwgZ3JvdXAuIExpcGlkcyBhcmUgdXNlZCBmb3IgZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UsIGZvciB3YXRlcnByb29maW5nLCBhcyBlc3NlbnRpYWwgY29tcG9uZW50cyBvZiBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5lcywgYW5kIGFzIGJ1aWxkaW5nIGJsb2NrcyBmb3Igc3Rlcm9pZCBob3Jtb25lcy48L3A+CjxwPg==[q] List the four key types of lipids. Briefly describe the function of each.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IExpcGlkcyBpbmNsdWRlIHRyaWdseWNlcmlkZXMgKGZhdHMgYW5kIG9pbHMpLCB3aGljaCBhcmUgdXNlZCBmb3IgZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UgYW5kIGluc3VsYXRpb247IHdheGVzLCB3aGljaCBhcmUgdXNlZCBmb3Igd2F0ZXJwcm9vZmluZzsgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkcywgd2hpY2ggYXJlIHRoZSBrZXkgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBjb21wb25lbnRzIG9mIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmVzOyBhbmQgc3Rlcm9pZHMsIHdoaWNoIGFyZSBzaWduYWxpbmcgbW9sZWN1bGVzIChzdGVyb2lkIGhvcm1vbmVzKS48L3A+CjxwPg==[q] Compare and contrast the chemical structure, properties, and functions of fats and oils.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] Describe the structure of phospholipids, and explain the relationship between phospholipid structure and the role that these molecules play in cell membranes.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IFBob3NwaG9saXBpZHMgaGF2ZSBhIHBvbGFyLCBoeWRyb3BoaWxpYyBoZWFkOyBhbmQgYSBub24tcG9sYXIsIGh5ZHJvcGhvYmljIHRhaWwuIFRoZSBjZW50cmFsIG1vbGVjdWxlIGluIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkIGlzIGEgMy1jYXJib24gYWxjb2hvbCBjYWxsZWQgZ2x5Y2Vyb2wgKHRoZSBzYW1lIG1vbGVjdWxlIGZvdW5kIGluIGZhdHMgYW5kIG9pbHMpLiBCb25kZWQgdG8gdGhlIGdseWNlcm9sIG9uIG9uZSBzaWRlIGFyZSB0d28gZmF0dHkgYWNpZHMsIGZvcm1pbmcgdGhlIGh5ZHJvcGhvYmljIHRhaWwuIE9uIHRoZSBvdGhlciBzaWRlIG9mIHRoZSBnbHljZXJvbCBpcyB0aGUgaHlkcm9waGlsaWMgaGVhZCwgd2hpY2ggY29udGFpbnMgYSBuZWdhdGl2ZWx5IGNoYXJnZWQgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwLjxiciAvPgpCZWNhdXNlIG9mIHRoaXMgc3RydWN0dXJlLCBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzIGNhbiBzcG9udGFuZW91c2x5IGZvcm0gYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQgYmlsYXllci4gSW4gYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQgYmlsYXllciwgdGhlIHRoZXJlIGFyZSB0d28gcm93cywgb3IgbGF5ZXJzLiBJbiBlYWNoIHJvdywgdGhlIGh5ZHJvcGhpbGljIGhlYWRzIGZhY2Ugb3V0IChpbnRlcmFjdGluZyB3aXRoIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyksIHdoaWxlIHRoZSB0YWlscyBmYWNlIGlud2FyZCwgZm9ybWluZyBhIHdhdGVyLWZyZWUgem9uZS4gSW4gYWRkaXRpb24sIHRoZSB0YWlscyBhcmUgYXR0cmFjdGVkIHRvIG9uZSBhbm90aGVyIGJ5IHZlcnkgd2VhayBpbnRlcm1vbGVjdWxhciBmb3JjZXMgKGNhbGxlZCBMb25kb24gRGlzcGVyc2lvbiBmb3JjZXMsIG9yIGh5ZHJvcGhvYmljIGJvbmRzKS4gTm93IGltYWdpbmUgdGhpcyBiaWxheWVyIGZvcm1pbmcgYSBzcGhlcmUuIE91dHNpZGUgb2YgdGhlIHNwaGVyZSBpcyB0aGUgd2F0ZXJ5IGV4dGVyaW9yLiBJbnNpZGUgaXMgdGhlIHdhdGVyeSBpbnRlcmlvci4gVGhhdCBiaWxheWVyIGlzIHRoZSBmcmFtZXdvcmsgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmUuPGJyIC8+Ck5vdGUgdGhhdCBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzIGZvcm0gdGhlIGJhc2lzIG9mIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmVzIGluIHR3byBvZiBsaWZlJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhyZWUgZG9tYWluczogYmFjdGVyaWEgYW5kIGV1a2FyeWEgKGV1a2FyeW90ZXMpLiBBcmNoYWVhIHVzZSBhIGRpZmZlcmVudCBsaXBpZCB0byBmb3JtIHRoZWlyIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmVzLjwvcD4KPHA+[q] Describe the structure and function of steroids and waxes.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] Name the monomer of proteins, and describe that monomer’s structure.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] Describe the biological importance of proteins.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] Describe the biological importance of nucleic acids.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the biological importance of carbon, and explain why carbon plays the role that it does in living things.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] What are monomers? How do they connect to form polymers?

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Compare and contrast dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]] Name the monomer of nucleic acids, and describe this monomer’s structure. Describe how these monomers are different in DNA and RNA.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IFRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBudWNsZWljIGFjaWRzIGFyZSBudWNsZW90aWRlcywgd2hpY2ggY29uc2lzdCBvZiBhIDUtY2FyYm9uIHN1Z2FyLCBhIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cCwgYW5kIG9uZSBvZiBmb3VyIG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2VzLjxiciAvPgpJbiBETkEsIHRoZSBzdWdhciBpcyBkZW94eXJpYm9zZSwgYW5kIHRoZSBiYXNlcyBhcmUgYWRlbmluZSwgdGh5bWluZSwgY3l0b3NpbmUgYW5kIGd1YW5pbmUuIEluIFJOQSwgdGhlIHN1Z2FyIGlzIHJpYm9zZSwgYW5kIHRoZSBiYXNlcyBhcmUgYWRlbmluZSwgdXJhY2lsLCBjeXRvc2luZSwgYW5kIGd1YW5pbmUuPC9wPgo8cD4=[q]Explain how the structure and function of a protein emerges from four levels of interactions between the amino acids making up that protein.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] Explain the molecular cause of sickle cell disease.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Starch and cellulose are both polysaccharides, yet their biological functions are different. Describe the function of each, and explain their differences.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the structure of DNA.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IEROQSBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiB0d28gbnVjbGVvdGlkZSBzdHJhbmRzLiBXaXRoaW4gZWFjaCBzdHJhbmQsIHRoZSBkZW94eW51Y2xlb3RpZGUgbW9ub21lcnMgYXJlIGNvbm5lY3RlZCB0byBvbmUgYW5vdGhlciBieSBzdWdhci1waG9zcGhhdGUgYm9uZHMuIFRoZSBzdHJhbmRzIGNvbm5lY3QgdG8gb25lIGFub3RoZXIgYnkgaHlkcm9nZW4gYm9uZHMgYmV0d2VlbiBuaXRyb2dlbm91cyBiYXNlcyB3aXRoIGNvbXBsZW1lbnRhcnkgc2hhcGVzOiBhZGVuaW5lIGJvbmRpbmcgd2l0aCB0aHltaW5lIGFuZCBjeXRvc2luZSBiaW5kaW5nIHdpdGggZ3VhbmluZS48L3A+CjxwPg==[q json=”true” unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Flashcards|1d5340acab9be4″ question_number=”36″] 1) Describe the endoplasmic reticulum. 2) List the two forms of endoplasmic reticulum, and describe their structural and functional differences.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the structure and function of the Golgi complex.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IFRoZSBHb2xnaSBjb21wbGV4IGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGEgc2VyaWVzIG9mIG1lbWJyYW5lLWJvdW5kIGZsYXR0ZW5lZCBzYWNzLiBUaGUgR29sZ2kgcmVjZWl2ZXMgdmVzaWNsZXMgZnJvbSB0aGUgcm91Z2ggYW5kIHNtb290aCBFUiwgYW5kIGNoZW1pY2FsbHkgbW9kaWZpZXMgdGhlIGNvbnRlbnRzIG9mIHRoZXNlIHZlc2ljbGVzICh1c3VhbGx5IHByb3RlaW5zKS4gT25jZSB0aGVzZSBwcm90ZWlucyBhcmUgbW9kaWZpZWQsIHRoZXnigJlyZSBwYWNrYWdlZCBpbnRvIHZlc2ljbGVzIHRoYXQgYnVkIG9mZiBmcm9tIHRoZSBvdXRlciBzaWRlIG9mIHRoZSBHb2xnaSwgYW5kIHNlbnQgdG8gb3JnYW5lbGxlcywgdG8gdGhlIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmUsIG9yIGV4cG9ydGVkIGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwuPGJyIC8+Ck5vdGUgdGhhdCB0aGUgR29sZ2kgY29tcGxleCBpcyBhbHNvIGNhbGxlZCB0aGUgR29sZ2kgYm9keSwgb3IgdGhlIEdvbGdpIGFwcGFyYXR1cy48L3A+CjxwPg==[q]Describe the function of mitochondria.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IFRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWHigJlzIG92ZXJhbGwgZnVuY3Rpb24gaXMgY3JlYXRpb24gb2YgQVRQLCBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCB3ZeKAmWxsIGxlYXJuIGEgZ3JlYXQgZGVhbCBhYm91dCB0aGlzIHRlcm0uPC9wPgo8cD4=[q]Describe the structure and function of lysosomes.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the structure and function of vacuoles.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IFZhY3VvbGVzIGFyZSBtZW1icmFuZSBib3VuZCBvcmdhbmVsbGVzLCBnZW5lcmFsbHkgdXNlZCBmb3Igc3RvcmFnZS4gUGxhbnQgY2VsbHMgY29udGFpbiBhIGxhcmdlIGNlbnRyYWwgdmFjdW9sZSB3aGljaCBzdG9yZXMgd2F0ZXIsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBhbHNvIGhhcyBhIHZhcmlldHkgb2Ygb3RoZXIgZnVuY3Rpb25zLCBpbmNsdWRpbmcgc3RvcmluZyBhbmQgcmVsZWFzaW5nIG5lZWRlZCBtYWNyb21vbGVjdWxlcywgc3RvcmluZyB3YXN0ZSBwcm9kdWN0cywgYW5kIG1haW50YWluaW5nIHR1cmdvciBwcmVzc3VyZS48L3A+CjxwPg==[q]Describe the function of chloroplasts.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]IFRoZSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdCYjODIxNztzIGZ1bmN0aW9uIGlzIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLCBzb21ldGhpbmcgd2XigJlsbCBiZSBsZWFybmluZyBhYm91dCB0aGlzIHRlcm0uPC9wPgo8cD4=[q]Use the relationship between surface area and volume to explain why cells are small.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe some examples where individual cells or entire organisms need to increase their surface area. Describe how they do this.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] Describe the role of phospholipids in cell membranes.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the difference between transmembrane, integral, and peripheral proteins.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the importance of membrane proteins.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Compare and contrast simple diffusion with facilitated diffusion.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the chemical composition and the function of the plant cell wall.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Compare and contrast active and passive transport. As you do, explain what powers each process.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]What is receptor-mediated endocytosis? What is phagocytosis?

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Compare and contrast the terms hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic, and use these terms to explain the flow of water into or out of cells.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the consequences of being in a hypotonic or hypertonic environment for animal and plant cells.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Cellular compartmentalization marks a major evolutionary advance. Specify how that advance is thought to have occurred.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Describe the advantages of cellular compartmentalization.

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]Compare compartmentalization in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q]What’s the evidence for the idea that chloroplasts and mitochondria were once free living bacterial cells that arose through endosymbiosis?

[c]IFtzaG93X21lX3BsYWNl aG9sZGVyXTwvcD4KPHA+[f]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[q] Water is a [hangman] molecule. The oxygen side has a partially  [hangman] charge. The hydrogen side has a partially [hangman] charge. The bonds that form between water molecules are called [hangman] bonds. These same types of bonds also form between the complementary nitrogenous [hangman] of DNA (such as between adenine and thymine).

[c]IHBvbGFyPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IG5lZ2F0aXZlPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IHBvc2l0aXZlPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGJhc2VzPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] It takes a lot of energy to make water evaporate because that requires the breaking of [hangman] bonds.

[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] The monomers of carbohydrates are [hangman]. An example is glucose, a six carbon sugar. Put two of these together and you have a [hangman] like sucrose or lactose. More than three of these monomers together make a [hangman], like starch or cellulose.

[c]IG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlczwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4g[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4g[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] Cellulose is used by plants to make up their cell [hangman]. It’s a polymer of [hangman]. Humans lack the [hangman] to break down cellulose for energy, but it’s still and important source of [hangman] in the diet. By contrast, humans have the enzymes to break down another plant polysaccharide, [hangman]. This molecule, found in staples like rice, corn, wheat, and potatoes, which is a hugely important source of food energy.

[c]IHdhbGxzPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGdsdWNvc2U8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGVuenltZXM8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGZpYmVyPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHN0YXJjaDwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[q] [hangman]are molecules that are nonpolar (or have large nonpolar regions). Fats and oils are both [hangman]. With three [hangman] acids, these molecules have the most energy of any nutrient. Another molecule in this family, [hangman],make up cell membranes.

[c]IExpcGlkczwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4g[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IHRyaWdseWNlcmlkZXM8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGZhdHR5PC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHBob3NwaG9saXBpZHM8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] The [hangman] of a phospholipid is polar and [hangman]. The [hangman] is hydrophobic.  When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form a [hangman], a structure which is the basis for the cell [hangman] of eukaryotes and bacteria.

[c]IGhlYWQ8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGh5ZHJvcGhpbGljPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHRhaWw8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGJpbGF5ZXI8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IG1lbWJyYW5lPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] Proteins are polymers of [hangman] acids. All of the monomers of proteins have a [hangman] group and an amine group. Each protein monomer, however, has a distinct [hangman] chain, also known as an R group.

[c]IGFtaW5vPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGNhcmJveHlsPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IHNpZGU8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] Both DNA and RNA are [hangman] acids. While [hangman] stays within a eukaryotic cell’s nucleus, RNA moves out into the [hangman]. One form of RNA, [hangman] is translated by [hangman] into protein.

[c]IG51Y2xlaWM8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IEROQTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4g[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGN5dG9wbGFzbTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4g[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IG1STkE8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHJpYm9zb21lczwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] The molecular building blocks of the molecules of life are called [hangman] When many of these are chained together by enzymes during [hangman] synthesis reactions, they form [hangman].

[c]IG1vbm9tZXJzPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGRlaHlkcmF0aW9uPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHBvbHltZXJzPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] The monomer of nucleic acids are [hangman]. In DNA, these monomers consist of a 5 carbon sugar called [hangman], one of four nitrogenous [hangman], and a [hangman] group.

[c]IG51Y2xlb3RpZGVzPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3NlPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGJhc2VzPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHBob3NwaGF0ZTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4g[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[q] Proteins have four levels of structure. Primary structure is the linear sequence of [hangman] acids. Secondary structure involves interactions between carbonyl groups and amine groups within the polypeptide [hangman]. Secondary interactions result in structures like the corkscrew-like alpha  [hangman] and the folded beta [hangman] sheet. Tertiary structure creates twists and turns in the protein that are caused by interactions among the [hangman] chains. In quaternary structure, two or more folded [hangman] chains interact with each other.

[c]IGFtaW5vPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGJhY2tib25lPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGhlbGl4PC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHBsZWF0ZWQ8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHNpZGU8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+IA==[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHBvbHlwZXB0aWRlPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[q] DNA is a double [hangman]. If DNA were a ladder, its sides would be made of alternating [hangman] and phosphate groups. The rungs would be made of nitrogenous bases, connected by [hangman] bonds.

[c]IGhlbGl4PC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPiA=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IHN1Z2FyPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[q] Moving from the inside out, the cell’s endomembrane system starts with the [hangman] membrane, which separates the DNA from the cytoplasm. Next comes the [hangman] E.R., which contains many [hangman]. The smooth ER follows: its function includes synthesis of [hangman]. Proteins move from the ER to the [hangman] complex, which packages and processes these proteins. Proteins move from compartment to compartment by means of membrane-bound [hangman].

[c]IG51Y2xlYXI8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHJvdWdoPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]cmlib3NvbWVzPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGxpcGlkczwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]R29sZ2k8L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IHZlc2ljbGVzPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[q] Cell membranes can be described by the fluid [hangman] model. The basic idea is that a [hangman] bilayer forms the overall framework. Into this framework are many membrane embedded [hangman] which act as channels, receptors, and attachment points for the cytoskeleton. A lipid molecule called [hangman] has the function of maintaining membrane fluidity and stability.

[c]IG1vc2FpYzwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHBob3NwaG9saXBpZDwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHByb3RlaW5zPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGNob2xlc3Rlcm9sPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] In [hangman] diffusion, small or nonpolar molecules can diffuse right across the membranes’ phospholipid bilayer. During [hangman] diffusion, molecules diffuse through a protein channel. In [hangman] transport, cells use energy (often in the form of ATP) to pump molecules “uphill,” moving against a [hangman] gradient.

[c]IHNpbXBsZTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGZhY2lsaXRhdGVkPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGFjdGl2ZTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGNvbmNlbnRyYXRpb248L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] If a cell is in a [hangman] environment, then the environment has less solute than the cell has, and water will flow [hangman] the cell. This will cause an animal cell to [hangman] and ultimately burst. However, this same condition is actually healthy for plant cells because of their cell [hangman].

A cell in an [hangman] environment has the same concentration of solutes inside the cell as outside the cell.

[c]IGh5cG90b25pYzwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGludG88L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGV4cGFuZDwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]d2FsbDwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGlzb3RvbmljPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[q] One of the biggest difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells is the fact that the former have many internal  [hangman], such as the Golgi, the ER, lysosomes and vesicles. These structures can have an internal chemistry that’s very different from the [hangman] as a whole. In lysosomes, for example, the pH is much [hangman] than in the rest of the cell, allowing that organelle to carry out its unique hydrolytic functions

[c]IGNvbXBhcnRtZW50czwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGN5dG9wbGFzbTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IGxvd2VyPC9wPgo8cD48c3Ryb25nPg==[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q] Multiple lines of evidence support the idea that chloroplasts and mitochondria were once independent prokaryotic cells that were taken up by another cell to form the first [hangman] cells. This relationship between eukaryotes and their prokaryotic inhabitants has two components. A relationship in which one organism lives inside another one is [hangman]. A relationship where two organisms benefit one another is called [hangman].

Here’s the evidence for this idea:
1) Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own [hangman]. organized into a single circular chromosome.
2) Both organelles use their own [hangman] to produce some of their own proteins. These resemble similar structures in bacterial cells.
3) Both chloroplasts and mitochondria have [hangman] membranes. The outer membrane is thought to be a vestige of the membrane  of the host cell that engulfed the ancestral mitochondrion and chloroplast  nearly two billion years ago.

[c]IGV1a2FyeW90aWM8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+[f]IEdyZWF0ITwvc3Ryb25nPjwvcD4KPHA+[c]IGVuZG9zeW1iaW9zaXM8L3A+CjxwPjxzdHJvbmc+[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IG11dHVhbGlzbTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE8L3N0cm9uZz48L3A+CjxwPg==[c]IEROQTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IHJpYm9zb21lczwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IEdvb2QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[c]IGRvdWJsZTwvcD4KPHA+PHN0cm9uZz4=[f]IENvcnJlY3QhPC9zdHJvbmc+PC9wPgo8cD4=[q]Cells are small because small objects have a high [hangman] of surface area relative to their [hangman]. Many biological adaptations in large, multicellular organisms are about increasing the amount of internal or external surface area. For example, the intestines have a folded wavy structure to increase the rate of [hangman] of molecules into the bloodstream. The huge ears of elephants are an adaptation for increasing the [hangman] of heat from inside the body.

[c]cmF0aW88L3A+CjxwPg==[c]dm9sdW1lPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]ZGlmZnVzaW9uPC9wPgo8cD4=[c]ZGlmZnVzaW9uPC9wPgo8cD4=[/qwiz]