Link to Chemistry for Biology Students: Student Learning Guide

1. To understand biology, you need to understand (some) chemistry

Biology (the science of life) is based on chemistry (the study of matter).

rotating DNA-375
DNA, the molecule of heredity. Click to see a larger, 3-D, rotating view (By brian0918™  via Wikimedia Commons)
  • EXAMPLE 1: How did you inherit your biological traits (such as height, skin color, physical appearance, etc.) from your parents? Heredity is based on DNA, the molecule that tells cells what to do and directs how bodies develop. DNA’s structure, along with its ability to direct its own replication and to control cells and patterns of development, is all chemistry.
  • EXAMPLE 2: When you get ill, how do you fight off infections? Your immune system works through the action of huge molecules called  antibodies. Antibodies have a specific shape that lets them destroy organisms that invade your body. The shape is determined by the internal chemistry of the antibody.  

You don’t need to know a lot of chemistry to understand biology. Most of what you need is taught in an 8th grade science class. So what follows the next tutorials is a brief review: the chemistry that you’ll need in your biology course.

2. What you’ll learn in these chemistry tutorials

These tutorials cover

  1. The structure of atoms
  2. The chemical symbols of the most common atoms
  3. How to read a chemical formula
  4. Key chemistry terms
    1. element
    2. compound
    3. molecule
    4. ions
  5. The “Octet Rule” for electron configuration
  6. Ionic Bonds
  7. Covalent Bonds
  8. Structural Formulas

3. A Basic Chemistry Pretest

[qwiz repeat_incorrect=”false”; style = “border: 3px solid black; ” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Basic Chemistry Prequiz (M3)”]

[h] PRETEST: Basic Chemistry
[i]Before starting, let’s assess what you already know. Don’t worry if you don’t know a lot—it’s just a pretest. Just taking this pretest will improve your learning, so don’t skip it.

 

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”]The building block of matter is the

[c]IG51Y2xldXM=[Qq]

[c]IGF0 b20=[Qq]

[c]IHByb3Rvbg==[Qq]

[c]IGVsZWN0cm9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbnVjbGV1cyBpcyB0aGUgY2VudHJhbCBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBidWlsZGluZyBibG9jayBvZiBtYXR0ZXIuIFdoYXQgd291bGQgeW91IGNhbGwgdGhlIHVuaXQgdGhhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cyBwbHVzIHRoZSBlbGVjdHJvbnM/[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIEF0b21zIGFyZSB0aGUgYnVpbGRpbmcgYmxvY2tzIG9mIG1hdHRlci4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQcm90b25zIGFyZSBmb3VuZCBpbiB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4gV2hhdCB3b3VsZCB5b3UgY2FsbCB0aGUgdW5pdCB0aGF0IG1ha2VzIHVwIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIHBsdXMgdGhlIGVsZWN0cm9ucz8=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBFbGVjdHJvbnMgb3JiaXQgb3V0c2lkZSB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4gV2hhdCB3b3VsZCB5b3UgY2FsbCB0aGUgdW5pdCB0aGF0IG1ha2VzIHVwIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIHBsdXMgdGhlIGVsZWN0cm9ucz8=

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

Cg==

[Qq] 

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”]Electrons are found in

[c]IHRoZSBudWNsZXVz[Qq]

[c]IGVuZXJneS BsZXZlbHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbnVjbGV1cyBpcyB0aGUgY2VudHJhbCBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBhdG9tLCB3aGVyZSBwcm90b25zIGFuZCBuZXV0cm9ucyBhcmUgZm91bmQu[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIEVsZWN0cm9ucyBhcmUgZm91bmQgaW4gZW5lcmd5IGxldmVscyAoYWxzbyBjYWxsZWTCoA==c2hlbGxzKQ==

Cg==

[Qq] 

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]An element is composed of

[c]IE9ubHkgb25lIHR5 cGUgb2YgYXRvbQ==[Qq]

[c]IEF0IGxlYXN0IHR3byB0eXBlcyBvZiBhdG9tcw==[Qq]

[c]IE9ubHkgYXRvbXMgdGhhdCBoYXZlIGxvc3QgdGhlaXIgZWxlY3Ryb25z[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gQW4gZWxlbWVudCBpcyBhIHN1YnN0YW5jZSB0aGF0IGlzIGNvbXBvc2VkIG9mIG9ubHkgb25lIHR5cGUgb2YgYXRvbS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdWJzdGFuY2VzIGNvbXBvc2VkIG9mIHR3byBvciBtb3JlIHR5cGVzIG9mIGF0b21zIGFyZSBjb21wb3VuZHMgKGFuZCB3ZSYjODIxNztsbCBsZWFybiBtb3JlIGFib3V0IHRoZW0gbGF0ZXIu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBhbiBhdG9tIG1pZ2h0IHRlbXBvcmFyaWx5IGxvc2UgaXRzIGVsZWN0cm9ucyAobW9yZSBhYm91dCB0aGF0IGxhdGVyKSwgdGhlcmUgYXJlIG5vIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgdGhhdCBhcmUgY29tcG9zZWQgb2YgYXRvbXMgdGhhdCBoYXZlIGxvc3QgdGhlaXIgZWxlY3Ryb25zLg==

Cg==

wqA=[Qq]

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]Which of the following could NOT be the chemical symbol for an element

[c]RmU=[Qq]

[c]SG Vn[Qq]

[c]SQ==[Qq]

[c]TW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gJiM4MjIwO0ZlJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBhIHBlcmZlY3RseSBsZWdpdGltYXRlIHN5bWJvbCYjODIzMDt0aGUgc3ltYm9sIGZvciB0aGUgbGV0dGVyIElyb24u[Qq]

[f]IFllczogJiM4MjIwO0hlZyYjODIyMTsgY291bGQgTk9UIGJlIGEgY2hlbWljYWwgc3ltYm9sIGZvciBhbiBlbGVtZW50LiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gV2l0aCB0aHJlZSBsZXR0ZXJzLCAmIzgyMjA7SGVnJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBub3QgYcKgbGVnaXRpbWF0ZSBjaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2wuwqA=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gJiM4MjIwO0kmIzgyMjE7IGlzIGEgcGVyZmVjdGx5IGxlZ2l0aW1hdGUgc3ltYm9sJiM4MjMwO3RoZSBzeW1ib2wgZm9yIHRoZSBlbGVtZW50IElvZGluZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gJiM4MjIwO01uJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBhIHBlcmZlY3RseSBsZWdpdGltYXRlIHN5bWJvbCYjODIzMDt0aGUgc3ltYm9sIGZvciB0aGUgZWxlbWVudCBNYW5nYW5lc2U=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”] Potassium has 19 protons, 19 neutrons, and 19 electrons. Following the Octet Rule for placing electrons in energy levels, which of the following arrangements is correct?

[c]wqBUZW4gZWxlY3Ryb25zIGluIHRoZSBmaXJzdMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVsLCBuaW5lIGluIHRoZSBzZWNvbmQu[Qq]

[c]IFR3byBlbGVjdHJvbnMgaW4gdGhlIGZpcnN0wqBlbmVyZ3kgbGV2ZWwsIGVpZ2h0IGluIHRo ZSBzZWNvbmQsIGVpZ2h0IGluIHRoZSB0aGlyZCwgYW5kIG9uZSBpbiB0aGUgZm91cnRoLg==[Qq]

[c]wqBUd28gZWxlY3Ryb25zIGluIHRoZSBmaXJzdMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVsLCB0ZW7CoGluIHRoZSBzZWNvbmQsIGFuZCBzZXZlbiBpbiB0aGUgdGhpcmQu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBJbiBQb3Rhc3NpdW0sIHdpdGggMTkgZWxlY3Ryb25zLCB0aGUgZmlyc3QgdHdvIGVsZWN0cm9ucyBnbyBpbnRvIHRoZSBmaXJzdMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVsLiBUaGUgbmV4dCA4IGdvIGludG8gdGhlIHNlY29uZMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVsLiBUaGUgbmV4dCA4IGdvIGludG8gdGhlIHRoaXJkwqBlbmVyZ3kgbGV2ZWwuIFRoYXQgbGVhdmVzIG9uZSBlbGVjdHJvbiBmb3IgdGhlIGZvdXJ0aMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVsLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==

wqA=[Qq]

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]How many individual atoms are found in a molecule of CH4O?

[c]Mw==[Qq]

[c]NA==[Qq]

[c]Ng ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgVGhlcmUgYXJlIHRocmVlIGVsZW1lbnRzIGluIHRoaXMgbW9sZWN1bGU6IGNhcmJvbiAoQyksIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIChIKSwgYW5kIG94eWdlbiAoTykuIFRoZSBsYWNrIG9mIGEgc3Vic2NyaXB0IG5leHQgdG8gdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhbmQgb3h5Z2VuIGluZGljYXRlcyBvbmUgYXRvbSBvZiBlYWNoLiBUaGUgc3Vic2NyaXB0ICYjODIyMDs0JiM4MjIxOyBuZXh0IHRvIHRoZSBoeWRyb2dlbiAoSA==NA==KSBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGVyZSBhcmUgZm91ciBoeWRyb2dlbiBhdG9tcy4gNCArIDEgKyAxID0gNiB0b3RhbCBhdG9tcy7CoA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgbWlnaHQgaGF2ZSBiZWVuIGNvbmZ1c2VkIGJ5IHRoZSA0IG5leHQgdG8gdGhlIEggKEg=NA==KS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGhvdyBpdCB3b3JrczrCoFRoZXJlIGFyZSB0aHJlZSBlbGVtZW50cyBpbiB0aGlzIG1vbGVjdWxlOiBjYXJib24gKEMpLCBoeWRyb2dlbiAoSCksIGFuZCBveHlnZW4gKE8pLiBUaGUgbGFjayBvZiBhIHN1YnNjcmlwdCBuZXh0IHRvIHRoZSBjYXJib24gYW5kIG94eWdlbiBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgb25lIGF0b20gb2YgZWFjaC4gVGhlIHN1YnNjcmlwdCAmIzgyMjA7NCYjODIyMTsgbmV4dCB0byB0aGUgaHlkcm9nZW4gKEg=NA==KSBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGVyZSBhcmUgZm91ciBoeWRyb2dlbiBhdG9tcy4gNCArIDEgKyAxID0gNiB0b3RhbCBhdG9tcy7CoA==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy7CoFRoZXJlIGFyZSB0aHJlZSBlbGVtZW50cyBpbiB0aGlzIG1vbGVjdWxlOiBjYXJib24gKEMpLCBoeWRyb2dlbiAoSCksIGFuZCBveHlnZW4gKE8pLiBUaGUgbGFjayBvZiBhIHN1YnNjcmlwdCBuZXh0IHRvIHRoZSBjYXJib24gYW5kIG94eWdlbiBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgb25lIGF0b20gb2YgZWFjaC4gVGhlIHN1YnNjcmlwdCAmIzgyMjA7NCYjODIyMTsgbmV4dCB0byB0aGUgaHlkcm9nZW4gKEg=NA==KSBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGVyZSBhcmUgZm91ciBoeWRyb2dlbiBhdG9tcy4gNCArIDEgKyAxID0gNiB0b3RhbCBhdG9tcy4=

Cg==

[Qq] 

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]What’s the smallest piece of a compound that still has the properties of that compound?

[c]QSBtb2xl Y3VsZQ==[Qq]

[c]QW4gYXRvbQ==[Qq]

[c]QW4gaW9u[Qq]

[f]IFllcy7CoEEgbW9sZWN1bGXCoGlzIHRoZSBzbWFsbGVzdCBwaWVjZcKgb2YgYSBjb21wb3VuZCB0aGF0IHN0aWxsIGhhcyBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIHByb3BlcnRpZXMgb2YgdGhhdCBjb21wb3VuZC7CoA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdG9tcyBhcmUgdGhlIGJ1aWxkaW5nIGJsb2NrcyBvZiBtYXR0ZXIuIEJ1dCBjb21wb3VuZHMgKGNvbWJpbmF0aW9ucyBvZiBjaGVtaWNhbGx5IGJvbmRlZCBhdG9tcykgaGF2ZSBwcm9wZXJ0aWVzIHRoYXQgYXJlIHZlcnkgZGlmZmVyZW50IGZyb20gdGhlIGF0b21zIHRoYXQgbWFrZSB0aGVtIHVwLiBUaGUgc21hbGxlc3QgdW5pdCBvZiBhIGNvbXBvdW5kIHRvIHN0aWxsIGhhdmUgdGhhdCBjb21wb3VuZCYjODIxNztzIGNoZW1pY2FsIHByb3BlcnRpZXMgd291bGQgYmUgYSA=bW9sZWN1bGU=LsKg[Qq]

[f]wqBOby4gSW9ucyBhcmUgYXRvbXMgdGhhdCBoYXZlIGxvc3QgZWxlY3Ryb25zLCBhbmQgdGhlcmVieSBnYWluZWQgYW4gZWxlY3RyaWNhbCBjaGFyZ2UuIA==Q29tcG91bmRzIGFyZSBjb21iaW5hdGlvbnMgb2YgY2hlbWljYWxseSBib25kZWQgYXRvbXMuwqBUaGUgc21hbGxlc3QgdW5pdCBvZiBhIGNvbXBvdW5kIHRvIHN0aWxsIGhhdmUgdGhhdCBjb21wb3VuZCYjODIxNztzIGNoZW1pY2FsIHByb3BlcnRpZXMgd291bGQgYmUgYSA=bW9sZWN1bGU=Lg==

[Qq]

 

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]The type of chemical bond that would result from the electron swapping shown below is a(n)

[c]Y292YWxlbnQgYm9uZA==[Qq]

[c]aW9uaWMg Ym9uZA==[Qq]

[c]aHlkcm9nZW7CoGJvbmQ=[Qq]

[f]wqBOby4gQ292YWxlbnQgYm9uZHMgcmVzdWx0IHdoZW4gYXRvbXMgc2hhcmUgZWxlY3Ryb25zIChhcyBvcHBvc2VkIHRvIHN3YXBwaW5nIHRoZW0sIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoYXQgaXMgc2hvd24gaW4gdGhpcyBkaWFncmFtLiBUaGlzIHR5cGUgb2Ygc3dhcCBpcyB0aGUgYmFzaXMgZm9yIGFuIA==aW9uaWM=IGJvbmQuwqA=

Cg==
[Qq]
An ionic bond

[f]wqBZZXMuIEluIGlvbmljIGJvbmRzLCBhdG9tcyBzd2FwIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4gRWxlY3Ryb24gc3dhcHBpbmcgcmVzdWx0cyBpbiBjaGFyZ2VkIGlvbnMsIHdoaWNoIGJvbmQgd2l0aCBvbmUgYW5vdGhlciBiZWNhdXNlIG9mIHRoZWlyIG9wcG9zaXRlIGVsZWN0cmljYWwgY2hhcmdlcy7CoA==

Cg==
[Qq]An ionic bond

[f]wqBOby4gQSBoeWRyb2dlbiBib25kIGlzIGEgYm9uZCBiZXR3ZWVuIG1vbGVjdWxlcy4gVGhlIGtpbmQgb2YgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhZGluZyBzaG93biBhYm92ZSByZXN1bHRzIGluIGNoYXJnZWQgaW9ucywgd2hpY2ggYm9uZCB3aXRoIG9uZSBhbm90aGVyIGJlY2F1c2Ugb2YgdGhlaXIgb3Bwb3NpdGUgZWxlY3RyaWNhbCBjaGFyZ2VzLiBUaGUgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGJvbmQgaXMgYW4gaW9uaWMgYm9uZA==IChzZWUgYmVsb3cp

Cg==
[Qq]
An ionic bond

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]What’s the charge on a calcium ion?

[c]IEl0IGhhcyBubyBjaGFyZ2U=[Qq]

[c]ICsgMQ==[Qq]

[c]ICsg Mg==[Qq]

[c]IC0x[Qq]
[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBzaG93cyBhwqBjYWxjaXVtIGlvbiB3aXRoIDIwIHByb3RvbnMsIGFuZMKgMTggZWxlY3Ryb25zICgyICsgOCArIDggPSAxOCkuwqBUaGUgY2hhcmdlIG9uIHRoZSBpb24gaXMgdGhlIG51bWJlciBvZiBwcm90b25zLCBtaW51cyB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4=[Qq]
[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBpcyBzaG93aW5nIGNhbGNpdW0gd2l0aCAyMCBwcm90b25zLCBidXQgb25seSAxOCBlbGVjdHJvbnMuwqBUaGUgY2hhcmdlIG9uIHRoZSBpb24gaXMgdGhlIG51bWJlciBvZiBwcm90b25zLCBtaW51cyB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4=[Qq]
[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gaXMgc2hvd2luZyBjYWxjaXVtIHdpdGggMjAgcHJvdG9ucywgYnV0IG9ubHkgMTggZWxlY3Ryb25zLiBJdHMgY2hhcmdlIGhhcyB0byBiZSArMi4=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBpcyBzaG93aW5nIGNhbGNpdW0gd2l0aCAyMCBwcm90b25zLCBidXQgb25seSAxOCBlbGVjdHJvbnMuwqBUaGUgY2hhcmdlIG9uIHRoZSBpb24gaXMgdGhlIG51bWJlciBvZiBwcm90b25zLCBtaW51cyB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4=

Cg==

wqA=[Qq]

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]The bonds holding methane together are ___________  bonds.

[c]aW9uaWM=[Qq]

[c]YXRvbWlj[Qq]

[c]aHlkcm9nZW4=[Qq]

[c]Y292YW xlbnQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgSWYgeW91IGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUsIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoYXQgdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhbmQgaHlkcm9nZW4gYXJlIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zLiBUaGUgYm9uZCB0aGF0IGludm9sdmVzIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zIGlzIGEgY292YWxlbnQ=IGJvbmQuwqA=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgZiB5b3UgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBhYm92ZSwgeW91IGNhbiBzZWUgdGhhdCB0aGUgY2FyYm9uIGFuZCBoeWRyb2dlbiBhcmUgc2hhcmluZyBlbGVjdHJvbnMuIFRoZSBib25kIHRoYXQgaW52b2x2ZXMgc2hhcmluZyBlbGVjdHJvbnMgaXMgYSA=Y292YWxlbnQ=IGJvbmQuwqA=[Qq]

[f]wqBOby4gSHlkcm9nZW4gYm9uZHMgYXJlIGJvbmRzIA==YmV0d2Vlbg==IG1vbGVjdWxlcy7CoElmIHlvdSBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGFib3ZlLCB5b3UgY2FuIHNlZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBjYXJib24gYW5kIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGFyZSBzaGFyaW5nIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4gVGhlIGJvbmQgdGhhdCBpbnZvbHZlcyBzaGFyaW5nIGVsZWN0cm9ucyBpcyBhIA==Y292YWxlbnQ=IGJvbmQu[Qq]

[f]WWVzLsKgSWYgeW91IGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUsIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoYXQgdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhbmQgaHlkcm9nZW4gYXJlIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zLiBUaGUgYm9uZCB0aGF0IGludm9sdmVzIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zIGlzIGEgY292YWxlbnQ=IGJvbmQu

Cg==

[Qq] 

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]The bond between the two carbon atoms in the diagram below is a(n)

[c]aW9uaWMgYm9uZA==[Qq]

[c]c2luZ2xlIGNvdmFsZW50IGJvbmQ=[Qq]

[c]ZG91YmxlIGNvdm FsZW50IGJvbmQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgSW9uaWMgYm9uZHMgaW52b2x2ZSBhdG9tcyB0aGF0IGhhdmUgdHJhZGVkIGVsZWNyb25zLiBJbiB0aGlzIHN0cnVjdHVyYWwgZm9ybXVsYSBkaWFncmFtLCB0aGUgdHdvIGxpbmVzIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhdG9tcyAoaW5kaWNhdGVkIGJ5IGEgQw==KSBpbmRpY2F0ZSBhIGRvdWJsZSBjb3ZhbGVudCBib25kLCB3aGljaCBtZWFucyB0d28gc2hhcmVkIHBhaXJzIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy7CoA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLkluIHRoaXMgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBmb3JtdWxhIGRpYWdyYW0sIHRoZSB0d28gbGluZXMgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgY2FyYm9uIGF0b21zIChpbmRpY2F0ZWQgYnkgYSA=Qw==KSBpbmRpY2F0ZSBhIGRvdWJsZSBjb3ZhbGVudCBib25kLCB3aGljaCBtZWFucyB0d28gc2hhcmVkIHBhaXJzIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy7CoA==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy5JbiB0aGlzIHN0cnVjdHVyYWwgZm9ybXVsYSBkaWFncmFtLCB0aGUgdHdvIGxpbmVzIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhdG9tcyAoaW5kaWNhdGVkIGJ5IGEgQw==KSBpbmRpY2F0ZSBhIGRvdWJsZSBjb3ZhbGVudCBib25kLCB3aGljaCBtZWFucyB0d28gc2hhcmVkIHBhaXJzIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4=

Cg==

[Qq] 

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]Which of the diagrams below is a structural formula?

[c]

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]

Cg ==

[Qq]

[c]wqA=Q0g=NA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIHN0cnVjdHVyYWwgZm9ybXVsYSBzaG93cyB0aGUgY2hlbWljYWwgc3ltYm9scyBmb3IgdGhlIGF0b21zIGluIGEgbW9sZWN1bGUsIGFuZCB1c2VzIGRhc2hlcyB0byByZXByZXNlbnQgdGhlIHNoYXJlZCBwYWlycyBvZiBlbGVjdHJvbnMgdGhhdCBjb25uZWN0IHRoZXNlIGF0b21zLiBUaGUgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBmb3JtdWxhIHdhcyB0aGlzIG9uZTrCoA==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gIGlzIGEgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBmb3JtdWxhIGZvciBtZXRoYW5lIChDSDQpLsKg[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7Q0g=NA==JiM4MjIxOyBpcyBhIA==bW9sZWN1bGFyIG9yIA==[Qq]chemical formula. A structural formula shows the chemical symbols for the atoms in a molecule, and uses dashes to represent the shared pairs of electrons that connect these atoms. The structural formula was this one:

[x]Don’t worry about your score on this prequiz. However you did, just by having taken it you’ll learn more from the tutorials that follow. Please continue by reading below.

[/qwiz]

4. Next steps

Now that you’ve taken this practice quiz, please move on to the first tutorial in this series. Or, follow the other links below: