Click for the student learning guide that accompanies this module.

1. Introduction

In the last two tutorials, which focused on the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle, we saw how carbon and nitrogen atoms move through ecosystems in various pathways in a never-ending cycle. Now, let’s look in more detail at some of the organisms that make up these pathways.

2. Getting Matter and Energy

Ecologically, plants are producers and autotrophs

Almost every ecosystem on our planet is powered by light energy from the sun. Through photosynthesis, plants convert light energy into chemical energy, primarily in the form of carbohydrates. The ability of plants to produce chemical energy makes them ecological producers. Producers are also called autotrophs. Autotroph means “self-feeder,” which is exactly what plants do: they feed themselves by making their own food through photosynthesis. Here’s the equation for photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy ? C6H12O6 + 6O2

An ecosystem could consist entirely and solely of plants and decomposers (the bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and return make their atoms available for recycling in biogeochemical cycles). But commonly there’s a level of animals who eat the plants. Several terms are used to refer to these plant-eaters. These animals are primary consumers (because they’re the first in a chain of animals that consume the matter and energy that’s been produced by plants). They’re also referred to as herbivores (“herb” is Latin for plant; “vore” is the same root that’s in the word “devour”). Finally, any organism that doesn’t make its own food is called a heterotroph. All consumers/heterotrophs get their energy from the carbohydrates produced by plants, and release that energy through cellular respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ?  energy(ATP) + 6CO2 + 6H2O

Four primary consumers, or herbivores. Clockwise from top left: cow, grasshopper, garden snail, earthworm

Carnivores, or secondary consumers eat the primary consumers. The term “predator” is mostly synonymous with carnivore.

The cheetah: a carnivore or secondary consumer
The cheetah: a carnivore or secondary consumer

And the chain can go higher still: A third level (tertiary) consumer, would eat a secondary consumer. But as we’ll see, while there are some carnivores which, as the opportunity arises, might eat another carnivore, there are few organisms that eat primarily at this tertiary level. These ways of getting matter and energy (producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer)  make up an ecosystem’s trophic levels. Trophic levels are feeding levels. Organisms at the same trophic level are positioned in a similar place in terms of the way that energy flows through an ecosystem. This becomes clearer when we look at the concept of food chains and food webs.

3. Food Chains

Two food chains. Source: wikimedia commons

You can follow this flow of matter and energy in a food chain, as shown below.

A food chain shows who eats whom in an ecosystem. It’s a pathway of matter and energy through a series of organisms, as you can see in the diagram below. In the food chain on the left, a flowering plant (a producer) is eaten by grasshoppers and bees (the primary consumers), which are eaten by other insects (secondary consumers), which are eaten by frogs (a third-level consumer in this food chain) and so on.

[qwiz style = “border: 3px solid black; ” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Food Chains, CFU (Ecosystems)”]

[h] Checking Understanding: Food Chains

[i] Just to make sure you’ve mastered all of the terms above, take this short quiz. It’s three questions, all based on the diagram above.

If you haven’t taken a sciencemusicvideos quiz before, here’s how it works: Each question is multiple choice, but the entire quiz is like a series of flashcards. If you get the question right, it comes off the deck. If you get the question wrong, it goes to the bottom of the deck.

Click “start” to begin.

[q] In the diagram, which number refers to a primary consumer?

[c]IDE=

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[q] In the diagram, which number refers to producers?

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[q] Which is the only level which performs photosynthesis?

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[x] If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below. Otherwise, continue reading.

[restart]

[/qwiz]

4. Food Webs

A food web shows all the interconnected food chains in an ecosystem. In the food web below, you can start from the phytoplankton (floating-organisms that do photosynthesis), and follow the pathway of matter and energy to the bivalves, to sea ducks, to the bald eagle. That is only one of several food chains that you could follow in this food web. See if you can find two or three others.

A food web

5. Other Ways of Getting Food: Omnivores, Scavengers, Decomposers, and Parasites

Many animals can’t be neatly classified as either primary or secondary consumers: the way they make a living (also known as their ecological niche) involves eating at multiple levels. A grizzly bear, for example, is an omnivore. It eats plants such as berries, but it will also hunt for rodents, rabbits, and salmon. Humans, of course, are also omnivores.

Grizzly bears are omnivores

Scavengers eat recently killed animals. Vultures are scavengers. So are bald eagles. Hyenas are both carnivores and scavengers.

Vultures are scavengers. Here you see them feeding on a carcass.

Many organisms participate in consuming and breaking down dead organic matter, which is a process that occurs in many stages. Decomposers, primarily fungi and bacteria, play the final role in this process, breaking down dead material into simple molecules that can re-enter biogeochemical cycles like the carbon cycle.

Decomposers, such as the fungi shown on the far right, complete the breakdown of dead material into simpler forms

Finally, parasites live inside and consume living prey. Some parasites can be as large as the tapeworm (shown below), which infects the muscle tissue of pigs and cows, and the intestines of humans. In humans, tapeworms can grow up be up to twenty feet long. However, many more parasites are microscopic, like the the parasitic bacteria that cause diseases like diphtheria and cholera, or viruses, which parasitize cells.

Source: Centers for Disease Control. Click to see full size image.

6. Flashcards: Food chains, Food Webs, Trophic Levels

At this point, you should be able to describe how food chains and food webs work, and the basic roles that organisms play within food chains and webs. This includes understanding the following terms:

  1. food chain
  2. food web
  3. producer
  4. primary consumer
  5. herbivore
  6. autotroph
  7. heterotroph
  8. secondary consumer
  9. carnivore
  10. predator
  11. trophic level
  12. omnivore
  13. decomposer
  14. scavenger
  15. parasite

To help you master these terms, spend as much time as you need working through these flashcards:

[qdeck style=”border: 2px solid black;” random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Food Webs, Trophic Levels FC (Ecosystems)”]

[h] Flashcards: Food Chains and Food Webs [i] Welcome to this set of flashcards about food chains and food webs. Here’s how it works.

  • Click ‘Flip’ to see the answer to each card.
  • Type in the answer
  • If you know it, click ‘Got it.”
  • If you don’t know it as well as you’d like, click ‘Need more practice,’ and that card will go to the bottom of the deck so you can practice it again.
  • ‘Shuffle’ lets you shuffle the deck.

[start]

[!] Card 1+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A _____ _____ is one pathway showing the flow of energy and matter through an ecosystem.

[textentry]

[a] A food chain is one pathway showing the flow of energy and matter through an ecosystem.

[!] Card 2+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] All of the food chains in an ecosystem make up a ______ ______.

[textentry]

[a] All of the food chains in an ecosystem make up a food web.

[!] Card 2b+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] All of the food chains in an ________ make up a food web.

[textentry]

[a] All of the food chains in an ecosystem make up a food web.

[!] Card 3+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A organism in an ecosystem, typically a plant, that creates food through photosynthesis is known as a ________.

[textentry]

[a] A organism in an ecosystem, typically a plant, that creates food through photosynthesis is known as a producer.

[!] Card 3b+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A organism in an ecosystem, typically a plant, that creates food through ________ is known as a producer.

[textentry]

[a] A organism in an ecosystem, typically a plant, that creates food through photosynthesis is known as a producer.

[!] Card 4+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] _______ consumers are organisms that eat producers.

[textentry]

[a] Primary consumers are organisms that eat producers.

[!] Card 5+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] _______ are also known as primary consumers.

[textentry]

[a]  Herbivores are also known as primary consumers.

[!] Card 5b+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]  Herbivores are also known as _______ consumers.

[textentry]

[a]  Herbivores are also known as primary consumers.

[!] Card 6+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] ________ are organisms that can feed themselves by making their own food.

[textentry]

[a] Autotrophs are organisms that can feed themselves by making their own food.

[!] Card 7+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] All organisms that eat other organisms (as opposed to making their own food) are __________.

[textentry]

[a] All organisms that eat other organisms (as opposed to making their own food) are heterotrophs.

[!] Card 8+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A _______ _______ is an organism that eats eats a primary consumer.

[textentry]

[a] A secondary consumer is an organism that eats eats a primary consumer.

[!] Card 8b+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] ________, like wolves, are also known as secondary consumers.

[textentry]

[a] Carnivores, like wolves, are also known as secondary consumers.

[!] Card 10+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A ________ is an animal that preys on other animals. In terms of trophic levels, these organisms are secondary or tertiary (third-level) consumers

[textentry]

[a] A predator is an animal that preys on other animals. In terms of trophic levels, these organisms are secondary or tertiary (third-level) consumers. (note that “carnivore” is a perfectly good response here).

[!] Card 11+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] An _________ is an animal that eats both as an herbivore (or primary consumer) and as a carnivore (or secondary consumer).

[textentry]

[a] An omnivore is an animal that eats both as an herbivore (or primary consumer) and as a carnivore (or secondary consumer).

[!] Card 12+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer: all of these are examples of ________ levels.

[textentry]

[a] Producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer: all of these are examples of trophic levels.

[!] Card 13+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A _________ is an organism that gets energy by breaking down dead material into simple molecules that can re-enter biogeochemical cycles.

[textentry]

[a] A decomposer is an organism that gets energy by breaking down dead material into simple molecules that can re-enter biogeochemical cycles.

[!] Card 13a+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A decomposer is an organism that gets energy by breaking down _______ material into simple molecules that can re-enter biogeochemical cycles.

[textentry]

[a] A decomposer is an organism that gets energy by breaking down dead material into simple molecules that can re-enter biogeochemical cycles.

[!] Card 13b+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A decomposer is an organism that gets energy by breaking down dead material into simple molecules that can re-enter __________ cycles.

[textentry]

[a] A decomposer is an organism that gets energy by breaking down dead material into simple molecules that can re-enter biogeochemical cycles.

[!] Card 14+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Whereas carnivores kill animals and eat them, ________ eat the remains of animals that other organisms have killed.

[textentry]

[a] Whereas carnivores kill animals and eat them, scavengers eat the remains of animals that other organisms have killed.

[!] Card 14a+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Whereas ________ kill animals and eat them, scavengers eat the remains of animals that other organisms have killed.

[textentry]

[a] Whereas carnivores kill animals and eat them, scavengers eat the remains of animals that other organisms have killed.

[!] Card 15+++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A _________ is an organism that lives inside of (or on) a living host, consuming that host while it’s still alive.

[textentry]

[a] A parasite is an organism that lives inside of (or on) a living host, consuming that host while it’s still alive.

[x] If you want more practice, please press the restart button below. Otherwise, continue to the final quiz.

[restart]

[/qdeck]

7. Quiz: Food Chains, Food Webs, Trophic Levels, etc.

[qwiz style = “border: 3px solid black;”random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Food Chains, Food Webs Quiz (Ecosystems)”]

[h] QUIZ: Food Chains and Food Webs

[i] This quiz covers key concepts and terms related to food chains and food webs

  • The quiz consists of a series of multiple choice questions, but it behaves like a stack of flashcards.
  • If you get a question right, you move on to the next question.
  • If you get a question wrong, you’ll get an explanation, and then that question goes to the bottom of the stack.
  • To exit the quiz, you have to answer each question correctly. The program will keep track of how many times you tried and how you did in each area that the quiz covers.
  • At the end of the quiz, the program will report back to you about how you did, and, if necessary, offer some suggestions for review.

[q] What is the source of energy in almost all ecosystems?

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[q] The organisms that create the food that supports ecosystems are known as

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[q] One of these things is not like the other ones. Which one doesn’t fit?

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[q] One of these things is not like the other ones. Which one doesn’t fit?

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[q] The correct chemical equation for photosynthesis is

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[c]IDZIPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+TyArIDZPPHN1Yj4yIDwvc3ViPiAtJmd0OyA2Q088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4gKyA2SDxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPk8=

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcmVhY3Rpb24gYWJvdmUgc2hvd3MgZ2x1Y29zZSBiZWluZyBjb21iaW5lZCB3aXRoIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLiBJbiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaXMgY29tYmluZWQgd2l0aCB3YXRlciB0byBjcmVhdGUgZ2x1Y29zZSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gcmVsZWFzZWQgYXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3Qu

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaXMgY29tYmluZWQgd2l0aCB3YXRlciB0byBjcmVhdGUgZ2x1Y29zZSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gcmVsZWFzZWQgYXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3Qu

[f]IFllcy4gSW4gcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGlzIGNvbWJpbmVkIHdpdGggd2F0ZXIgdG8gY3JlYXRlIGdsdWNvc2UsIHdpdGggb3h5Z2VuIHJlbGVhc2VkIGFzIGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0Lg==

[f]IE5vLiBGaW5kIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gdGhhdCBiZWdpbnMgd2l0aCBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBhbmQgd2F0ZXIsIGFuZCBjb21iaW5lcyB0aG9zZSBpbnB1dHMgdG8gY3JlYXRlIGdsdWNvc2UsIHdpdGggb3h5Z2VuIHJlbGVhc2VkIGFzIGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0Ljwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwPiZuYnNwOzwvcD4KPHA+

[q] The term that best describes the kind of organism that directly consumes plants is

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcg==

[c]IHByaW1hcnkg Y29uc3VtZXI=

[c]IGFuaW1hbA==

[c]IGhldGVyb3Ryb3Bo

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGNvbnN1bWUgcHJpbWFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnMuIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBvcmdhbmlzbSBlYXRzIHBsYW50cz8=

[f]IFllcy4gUHJpbWFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnMgYXJlIGhlcmJpdm9yZXMsIGFuZCBlYXQgcGxhbnRzLg==

[f]IE5vLiDigJhBbmltYWzigJkgaXMgYSBiaXQgdG9vIGJyb2FkLiBBbmltYWxzIGNhbiBiZSBoZXJiaXZvcmVzIG9yIGNhcm5pdm9yZXMuIFdoYXTigJlzIGEgc3lub255bSBmb3IgaGVyYml2b3JlPw==

[f]IE5vLiBIZXRlcm90cm9waCBpcyB0b28gYnJvYWQuIFRvIGJlIGEgaGV0ZXJvdHJvcGggbWVhbnMgbmVlZGluZyB0byBhY3F1aXJlIGZvb2QgZnJvbSBhbm90aGVyIG9yZ2FuaXNtLCBhcyBvcHBvc2VkIHRvIG1ha2luZyBpdCB5b3Vyc2VsZiAobGlrZSBhIHBsYW50IGNhbikuIEhldGVyb3Ryb3BocyBjYW4gYmUgaGVyYml2b3JlcywgY2Fybml2b3JlcywgZXZlbiBkZWNvbXBvc2Vycy4gWW91IG5lZWQgdG8gZmluZCB0aGUgZWNvbG9naWNhbCBlcXVpdmFsZW50IGZvciDigJhoZXJiaXZvcmUu4oCZPC9zcGFuPjwvcD4KPHA+

[q] The correct chemical reaction for cellular respiration is

[c]IEM8c3ViPjY8L3N1Yj5IPHN1Yj4xMjwvc3ViPk88c3ViPjYgPC9zdWI+KyA2Q088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4gKyBlbmVyZ3koQVRQKSAtJmd0OyA2Q088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4gKyA2TzxzdWI+MiA8L3N1Yj4=

[c]IEM8c3ViPjY8L3N1Yj5IPHN1Yj4xMjwvc3ViPk88c3ViPjYgPC9zdWI+KyA2TzxzdWI+Mjwvc3Vi PiAtJmd0OyBlbmVyZ3koQVRQKSArIDZDTzxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPiArIDZIPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+Tw==

[c]IDZDTzxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPiArIDZIPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+TyArIEVuZXJneShsaWdodCkgLSZndDtDPHN1Yj42PC9zdWI+SDxzdWI+MTI8L3N1Yj5PPHN1Yj42IDwvc3ViPisgNk88c3ViPjIgPC9zdWI+

[c]IDZIPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+TyArIDZPPHN1Yj4yIDwvc3ViPiAtJmd0OyA2Q088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4gKyA2SDxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPk8=

[f]IE5vLiBGaW5kIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gdGhhdCBiZWdpbnMgd2l0aCBnbHVjb3NlLCBjb21iaW5lcyBpdCB3aXRoIG94eWdlbiwgYW5kIHJlbGVhc2VzIGVuZXJneSwgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUsIGFuZCB3YXRlci4=

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQ2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24gYmVnaW5zIHdpdGggZ2x1Y29zZSwgY29tYmluZXMgaXQgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4sIGFuZCByZWxlYXNlcyBlbmVyZ3ksIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLCBhbmQgd2F0ZXIu

[f]IE5vLiBGaW5kIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gdGhhdCBiZWdpbnMgd2l0aCBnbHVjb3NlLCBjb21iaW5lcyBpdCB3aXRoIG94eWdlbiwgYW5kIHJlbGVhc2VzIGVuZXJneSwgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUsIGFuZCB3YXRlci4gVGhpcyBlcXVhdGlvbiwgYnkgdGhlIHdheSwgaXMgdGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgZXF1YXRpb24gZm9yIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLiBJZiB5b3UgcmV2ZXJzZSB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24sIHlvdeKAmWxsIGhhdmUgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uIGZvciBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBGaW5kIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gdGhhdCBiZWdpbnMgd2l0aCBnbHVjb3NlLCBjb21iaW5lcyBpdCB3aXRoIG94eWdlbiwgYW5kIHJlbGVhc2VzIGVuZXJneSwgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUsIGFuZCB3YXRlci48L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD4mbmJzcDs8L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] ‘Herbivore’ means the same as

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcg==

[c]IHByaW1hcnkg Y29uc3VtZXI=

[c]IGFuaW1hbA==

[c]IGhldGVyb3Ryb3Bo

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGNvbnN1bWUgcHJpbWFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnMuIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBvcmdhbmlzbSBlYXRzIHBsYW50cz8=

[f]IFllcy4gUHJpbWFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnMgYXJlIGhlcmJpdm9yZXMsIGFuZCBlYXQgcGxhbnRzLg==

[f]IE5vLiDigJhBbmltYWzigJkgaXMgYSBiaXQgdG9vIGJyb2FkLiBBbmltYWxzIGNhbiBiZSBoZXJiaXZvcmVzIG9yIGNhcm5pdm9yZXMuIFdoYXTigJlzIGEgc3lub255bSBmb3IgaGVyYml2b3JlPw==

[f]IE5vLiBIZXRlcm90cm9waCBpcyB0b28gYnJvYWQuIFRvIGJlIGEgaGV0ZXJvdHJvcGggbWVhbnMgbmVlZGluZyB0byBhY3F1aXJlIGZvb2QgZnJvbSBhbm90aGVyIG9yZ2FuaXNtLCBhcyBvcHBvc2VkIHRvIG1ha2luZyBpdCB5b3Vyc2VsZiAobGlrZSBhIHBsYW50IGNhbikuIEhldGVyb3Ryb3BocyBjYW4gYmUgaGVyYml2b3JlcywgY2Fybml2b3JlcywgZXZlbiBkZWNvbXBvc2Vycy4gWW91IG5lZWQgdG8gZmluZCB0aGUgZWNvbG9naWNhbCBlcXVpdmFsZW50IGZvciDigJhoZXJiaXZvcmUu4oCZwqA8L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD4mbmJzcDs8L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] If you need to acquire your food from another organism (as opposed to making it yourself), you’re a(n)

[c]IHBsYW50

[c]IGF1dG90cm9waA==

[c]IHByb2R1Y2Vy

[c]IGhldGVy b3Ryb3Bo

[f]IE5vLiBQbGFudHMgY2FuIG1ha2UgdGhlaXIgb3duIGZvb2QuIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBvcmdhbmlzbSBjYW7igJl0IG1ha2UgaXRzIG93biBmb29kPw==

[f]IE5vLiDigJhBdXRvdHJvcGjigJkgbWVhbnMg4oCYc2VsZiBmZWVkZXIu4oCZIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBvcmdhbmlzbSBjYW7igJl0IG1ha2UgaXRzIG93biBmb29kPw==

[f]IE5vLiBQcm9kdWNlcnMgYXJlIHBsYW50cyAob3Igc29tZSBvdGhlciBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXRpYyBvcmdhbmlzbSkgdGhhdCBwcm9kdWNlIGZvb2QgZm9yIHRoZW1zZWx2ZXMgYW5kIG90aGVyIG9yZ2FuaXNtcy4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIG9yZ2FuaXNtcyBjYW7igJl0IHByb2R1Y2UgdGhlaXIgb3duIGZvb2Q/

[f]IFllcy4gVG8gYmUgYSBoZXRlcm90cm9waCBtZWFucyBuZWVkaW5nIHRvIGFjcXVpcmUgZm9vZCBmcm9tIGFub3RoZXIgb3JnYW5pc20sIGFzIG9wcG9zZWQgdG8gbWFraW5nIGl0IHlvdXJzZWxmIChsaWtlIGEgcGxhbnQgY2FuKS4gSGV0ZXJvdHJvcGhzIGNhbiBiZSBoZXJiaXZvcmVzLCBjYXJuaXZvcmVzLCBhbmQgZXZlbiBkZWNvbXBvc2Vycy48L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iY29sb3I6ICMwMDAwMDA7Ij4g

[q] A pathway of matter and energy that flows from one organism to another is known as a

[c]IGZvb2Qgd2Vi

[c]IGZvb2Qg Y2hhaW4=

[c]IGJpb2dlb2NoZW1pY2FsIGN5Y2xl

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgdmVyeSBjbG9zZS4gQSBmb29kIHdlYiBpcyBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIGZvb2QgY2hhaW5zIGluIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbS4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCBjaG9vc2UganVzdCBhIHNpbmdsZSBwYXRod2F5Lg==

[f]IFllcy4gQSBmb29kIGNoYWluIGlzIGEgcGF0aHdheSBvZiBtYXR0ZXIgYW5kIGVuZXJneSBmcm9tIG9uZSBvcmdhbmlzbSB0byB0aGUgbmV4dCBpbiBhbiBlY29zeXN0ZW0u

[f]IE5vLiBBIGJpb2dlb2NoZW1pY2FsIGN5Y2xlIHNob3dzIHRoZSBjeWNsaW5nIG9mIG1hdHRlciBiZXR3ZWVuIGFiaW90aWMgYW5kIGJpb3RpYyBjb21wb25lbnRzIGluIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbS4gVG8gYW5zd2VyIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24ganVzdCBmb2N1cyBvbiB0aGUgcGF0aHdheSBvZiBtYXR0ZXIgYW5kIGVuZXJneSBiZXR3ZWVuIG9yZ2FuaXNtcy48L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iY29sb3I6ICMwMDAwMDA7Ij4gIA==

[q] An organism that primarily gets food by by eating herbivores is a(n)

[c]IFByb2R1Y2Vy

[c]IFByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXI=

[c]IFNlY29uZGFyeS Bjb25zdW1lcg==

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBtb3N0IGVjb3N5c3RlbXMsIHByb2R1Y2VycyBhcmUgdGhlIHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IHByb2R1Y2UgdGhlIGZvb2QgZm9yIHRoZW1zZWx2ZXMgYW5kIG90aGVyIG9yZ2FuaXNtcy4gV2hvIGVhdHMgdGhlIGhlcmJpdm9yZXM/

[f]IE5vLiBBIHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXIgZWF0cyBwbGFudHMuIFdobyBlYXRzIHRoZSBwcmltYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycz8=

[f]IFllcy4gU2Vjb25kYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycyBhcmUgY2Fybml2b3JlcyB0aGF0IGVhdCBwcmltYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycy7CoDwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] One of these things is not like the other ones. Which one doesn’t fit?

[c]IGNhcm5pdm9yZQ==

[c]IHByZWRhdG9y

[c]IFNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcg==

[c]IGhlcmJp dm9yZQ==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdW5pZnlpbmcgY29uY2VwdCBmb3IgdGhpcyBhbmQgdHdvIG9mIHRoZSBvdGhlciBjaG9pY2VzIGlzIOKAmG1lYXQgZWF0ZXIu4oCZIFdoaWNoIG9uZSBkb2VzIE5PVCBtZWFuIG1lYXQgZWF0ZXI/

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdW5pZnlpbmcgY29uY2VwdCBmb3IgdGhpcyBhbmQgdHdvIG9mIHRoZSBvdGhlciBjaG9pY2VzIGlzIOKAmG1lYXQgZWF0ZXIu4oCZIFdoaWNoIG9uZSBkb2VzIE5PVCBtZWFuIG1lYXQgZWF0ZXI/

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdW5pZnlpbmcgY29uY2VwdCBmb3IgdGhpcyBhbmQgdHdvIG9mIHRoZSBvdGhlciBjaG9pY2VzIGlzIOKAmG1lYXQgZWF0ZXIu4oCZIFdoaWNoIG9uZSBkb2VzIE5PVCBtZWFuIG1lYXQgZWF0ZXI/

[f]IFllcy4gSGVyYml2b3JlcyBlYXQgcGxhbnRzLiBBbGwgdGhlIG90aGVyIHRlcm1zIHJlZmVyIHRvIG1lYXQgZWF0ZXJzLjwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwPiZuYnNwOzwvcD4KPHA+

[q] The diagram at right depicts

[c]IHR3byBmb29kIGNo YWluczwvc3Bhbj4=

[c]IGEgZm9vZCB3ZWI=

[c]IGVjb3N5c3RlbQ==

[c]IGJpb2dlb2NoZW1pY2FsIGN5Y2xl

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIHBhdGh3YXkgb2YgZm9vZCBmcm9tIG9uZSBvcmdhbmlzbSB0byB0aGUgbmV4dCBpcyBhIGZvb2QgY2hhaW4u

[f]IE5vLiBBIGZvb2Qgd2ViIHNob3dzIGFsbCB0aGUgZm9vZCBjaGFpbnMgaW4gYW4gZWNvc3lzdGVtLiBUaGlzIGltYWdlIGlzIHNob3dpbmcgdHdvIHBhdGh3YXlzIG9mIGZvb2QgZW5lcmd5LiBXaGF04oCZcyB0aGUgYmVzdCB0ZXJtIGZvciB0aGF0Pw==

[f]IE5vLiBBIGRpYWdyYW0gb2YgYW4gZWNvc3lzdGVtIHdvdWxkIGluY2x1ZGUgYm90aCB0aGUgbGl2aW5nIGNvbW11bml0eSBpbiBhbiBhcmVhLCBhbmQgdGhlIG5vbi1saXZpbmcgcGFydHMgb2YgdGhlIGVudmlyb25tZW50IHRoYXQgc3VwcG9ydCB0aGF0IGNvbW11bml0eS4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGltYWdlIHNob3dzIGEgc2luZ2xlIHBhdGh3YXkgb2YgZm9vZCB0aHJvdWdoIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbT8=

[f]IE5vLiBBIGJpb2dlb2NoZW1pY2FsIGN5Y2xlIGRpYWdyYW0gd291bGQgc2hvdyB0aGUgZmxvdyBvZiBtYXR0ZXIgZnJvbSBsaXZpbmcgdG8gbm9uLWxpdmluZyBjb21wb25lbnRzIG9mIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbS4gVGhpcyBpbWFnZSBpcyBzaG93aW5nIHR3byBwYXRod2F5cyBvZiBmb29kIGVuZXJneS4gV2hhdOKAmXMgdGhlIGJlc3QgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24gb2YgdGhhdD/CoDwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwPiZuYnNwOzwvcD4KPHA+

[q] This diagram depicts a  [c]IGZvb2QgY2hhaW48L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo=

[c]IGEgZm9v ZCB3ZWI=

[c]IGVjb3N5c3RlbQ==

[c]IGJpb2dlb2NoZW1pY2FsIGN5Y2xl

[f]IE5vLiBBIGZvb2QgY2hhaW4gaXMgdGhlIHBhdGh3YXkgb2YgZm9vZCBmcm9tIG9uZSBvcmdhbmlzbSB0byB0aGUgbmV4dC4gVGhpcyBkaWFncmFtIHNob3dzIG11bHRpcGxlIGZvb2QgY2hhaW5zLg==

[f]IFllcy4gQSBmb29kIHdlYiBzaG93cyBhbGwgdGhlIGZvb2QgY2hhaW5zIGluIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbS4=

[f]IE5vLiBBIGRpYWdyYW0gb2YgYW4gZWNvc3lzdGVtIHdvdWxkIGluY2x1ZGUgYm90aCB0aGUgbGl2aW5nIGNvbW11bml0eSBpbiBhbiBhcmVhLCBhbmQgdGhlIG5vbi1saXZpbmcgcGFydHMgb2YgdGhlIGVudmlyb25tZW50IHRoYXQgc3VwcG9ydCB0aGF0IGNvbW11bml0eS4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGRpYWdyYW0gd291bGQgc2hvdyBhbGwgdGhlIGZvb2QgY2hhaW5zIGluIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbT8=

[f]IE5vLiBBIGJpb2dlb2NoZW1pY2FsIGN5Y2xlIGRpYWdyYW0gd291bGQgc2hvdyB0aGUgZmxvdyBvZiBtYXR0ZXIgZnJvbSBsaXZpbmcgdG8gbm9uLWxpdmluZyBjb21wb25lbnRzIG9mIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbS4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGRpYWdyYW0gd291bGQgc2hvdyBhbGwgdGhlIGZvb2QgY2hhaW5zIGluIGFuIGVjb3N5c3RlbT88L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD4=

[q] The organisms at number four in this diagram are

[c]IHByb2R1Y2Vycw==

[c]IHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXJz

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnM=

[c]IHRlcnRpYXJ5ICgzcmQtbG V2ZWwpIGNvbnN1bWVyc8Kg

[f]IE5vLiBQcm9kdWNlcnMgYXJlIGFsd2F5cyBhdCB0aGUgYm90dG9tIG9mIGEgZm9vZCBjaGFpbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBQcmltYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycyBhcmUgc2hvd24gYXQgbnVtYmVyIDIuIFRoZXkgZWF0IHByb2R1Y2Vycy48L3NwYW4+IA==[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGFyZSBzaG93biBhdCBudW1iZXIgMy4gVGhleSBlYXQgdGhlIHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzLjwvc3Bhbj48L3A+Cg==

[f]IFllcy4gQSB0ZXJ0aWFyeSAoM3JkLWxldmVsKSBjb25zdW1lciB3b3VsZCBiZSBhdCBudW1iZXIgNCBpbiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0uIFRlcnRpYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycyBlYXQgc2Vjb25kYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycyAoY2Fybml2b3JlcykuwqA8L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iY29sb3I6ICMwMDAwMDA7Ij4g

[q] The organisms at number one in this diagram are

[c]IHByb2R1Y2VycyA8c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iY29sb3I6ICMwMDAwMDA7Ij48aW5wdXQgbmFtZT0icXdpel9pbWciIGNsYXNzPSJhbGlnbnJpZ2h0IiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLm NvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxNC9TTVZfcXdpei9xd2l6X2ltYWdlcy9udW1iZXJlZF9mb29kX2NoYWluLmpwZyIgYWx0PSIiIHdpZHRoPSIyNDAiIGhlaWdodD0iMzMyIiAvPjwvc3Bhbj4=

[c]IHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXJz

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnM=

[c]IHRlcnRpYXJ5ICgzcmQtbGV2ZWwpIGNvbnN1bWVycw==

[f]IFllcy4gUHJvZHVjZXJzIGFyZSBhbHdheXMgYXQgdGhlIGJvdHRvbSBvZiBhIGZvb2QgY2hhaW4u

[f]IE5vLiBQcmltYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycyBhcmUgc2hvd24gYXQgbnVtYmVyIDIuIFRoZXkgZWF0IHByb2R1Y2Vycy4=

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGFyZSBzaG93biBhdCBudW1iZXIgMy4gVGhleSBlYXQgdGhlIHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBBIHRlcnRpYXJ5ICgzcmQtbGV2ZWwpIGNvbnN1bWVyIHdvdWxkIGJlIGF0IG51bWJlciA0IGluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbS4gVGVydGlhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGVhdCBzZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIChjYXJuaXZvcmVzKS48L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD4mbmJzcDs8L3A+CjxwPg==

[q] The organisms at number three in this diagram are

[c]IHByb2R1Y2Vyczwvc3Bhbj48L3A+Cg==

[c]IHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXJz

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeS Bjb25zdW1lcnM=

[c]IHRlcnRpYXJ5ICgzcmQtbGV2ZWwpIGNvbnN1bWVycw==

[f]IE5vLiBQcm9kdWNlcnMgYXJlIGFsd2F5cyBhdCB0aGUgYm90dG9tIG9mIGEgZm9vZCBjaGFpbi4gVGhleeKAmXJlIHNob3duIGF0IG51bWJlciAxLg==

[f]IE5vLiBQcmltYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycyBhcmUgc2hvd24gYXQgbnVtYmVyIDIuIFRoZXkgZWF0IHByb2R1Y2Vycy4=

[f]IFllcy4gU2Vjb25kYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycyBhcmUgc2hvd24gYXQgbnVtYmVyIDMuIFRoZXkgZWF0IHRoZSBwcmltYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVycy4=

[f]IE5vLiBBIHRlcnRpYXJ5ICgzcmQtbGV2ZWwpIGNvbnN1bWVyIHdvdWxkIGJlIGF0IG51bWJlciA0IGluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbS4gVGVydGlhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGVhdCBzZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIChjYXJuaXZvcmVzKS48L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iY29sb3I6ICMwMDAwMDA7Ij4g

[q] The organisms at number two in this diagram are

[c]IHByb2R1Y2Vycw==

[c]IHByaW1hcnkg Y29uc3VtZXJz

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnM=

[c]IHRlcnRpYXJ5ICgzcmQtbGV2ZWwpIGNvbnN1bWVycw==

[f]IE5vLiBQcm9kdWNlcnMgYXJlIGFsd2F5cyBhdCB0aGUgYm90dG9tIG9mIGEgZm9vZCBjaGFpbi4gVGhleeKAmXJlIHNob3duIGF0IG51bWJlciAxLg==

[f]IFllcy4gUHJpbWFyeSBjb25zdW1lcnMgYXJlIHNob3duIGF0IG51bWJlciAyLiBUaGV5IGVhdCBwcm9kdWNlcnMu

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGFyZSBzaG93biBhdCBudW1iZXIgMy4gVGhleSBlYXQgdGhlIHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBBIHRlcnRpYXJ5ICgzcmQtbGV2ZWwpIGNvbnN1bWVyIHdvdWxkIGJlIGF0IG51bWJlciA0IGluIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbS4gVGVydGlhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGVhdCBzZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIChjYXJuaXZvcmVzKS48L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iY29sb3I6ICMwMDAwMDA7Ij4g

[q] An animal like a grizzly bear that eats plants and preys on other animals is a(n)

[c]IGhlcmJpdm9yZQ==

[c]IHByaW1hcnkgY29uc3VtZXI=

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcg==

[c]IG9tbm l2b3Jl

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJiaXZvcmVzIGVhdCBwbGFudHMu

[f]IE5vLiBQcmltYXJ5IGNvbnN1bWVyIGlzIGVxdWl2YWxlbnQgdG8g4oCYaGVyYml2b3JlLuKAmSBUaGVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHNvbGVseSBlYXQgcGxhbnRzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGFyZSBzb2xlbHkgY2Fybml2b3Jlcy4gRmluZCB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiBhIHR5cGUgb2Ygb3JnYW5pc20gdGhhdCBlYXRzIGJvdGggcGxhbnRzIGFuZCBhbmltYWxzLg==

[f]IFllcy4gQmVhcnMgKGxpa2UgcGVvcGxlKSBhcmUgb21uaXZvcmVzLCBlYXRpbmcgYm90aCBwbGFudHMgYW5kIGFuaW1hbHMuPC9zcGFuPjwvcD4KPHA+PHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9ImNvbG9yOiAjMDAwMDAwOyI+IA==

[q] An animal like an elk that eats almost exclusively plants is a(n)

[c]IGhlcmJp dm9yZQ==

[c]IHByb2R1Y2Vy

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcg==

[c]IG9tbml2b3Jl

[f]IFllcy4gRWxrIGFyZSBoZXJiaXZvcmVzLCBvciBwbGFudCBlYXRlcnMu

[f]IE5vLiBQcm9kdWNlcnMgYXJlIHBsYW50cy4gV2hhdCB0eXBlIG9mIG9yZ2FuaXNtIGVhdHMgcGxhbnRzPw==

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGFyZSBjYXJuaXZvcmVzLiBGaW5kIHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIGEgdHlwZSBvZiBvcmdhbmlzbSB0aGF0IGVhdHMgb25seSBwbGFudHMu

[f]IE5vLiBPbW5pdm9yZXMgZWF0IGJvdGggcGxhbnRzIGFuZCBhbmltYWxzLiBGaW5kIHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIGEgdHlwZSBvZiBvcmdhbmlzbSB0aGF0IGVhdHMgb25seSBwbGFudHMuPC9zcGFuPjwvcD4KPHA+PHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9ImNvbG9yOiAjMDAwMDAwOyI+

[q] An animal like a vulture that eats the remains of dead animals is a(n)

[c]IGhlcmJpdm9yZQ==

[c]IHBhcmFzaXRl

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcg==

[c]IG9tbml2b3Jl

[c]IHNjYXZl bmdlcg==

[f]IE5vIEhlcmJpdm9yZXMgYXJlIHBsYW50LWVhdGVycw==

[f]IE5vLiBQYXJhc2l0ZXMgZmVlZCBvbiBhIGxpdmluZyBob3N0Lg==

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGFyZSBjYXJuaXZvcmVzLiBUaGV5IGtpbGwgdGhlaXIgcHJleS4=

[f]IE5vIE9tbml2b3JlcyBlYXQgYm90aCBwbGFudHMgYW5kIGFuaW1hbHMuIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBvcmdhbmlzbSBlYXRzIHRoZSByZW1haW5zIG9mIGRlYWQgYW5pbWFscy4=

[f]IFllcy4gQSB2dWx0dXJlIGZlZWRzIG9uIHRoZSByZW1haW5zIG9mIGRlYWQgYW5pbWFscywgbWFraW5nIGl0IGEgc2NhdmVuZ2VyLjwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwPiZuYnNwOzwvcD4KPHA+

[q] An organism like a tapeworm that feeds off a living host is a(n)

[c]IGhlcmJpdm9yZQ==

[c]IHBhcm FzaXRl

[c]IHNlY29uZGFyeSBjb25zdW1lcg==

[c]IG9tbml2b3Jl

[c]IHNjYXZlbmdlcg==

[f]IE5vIEhlcmJpdm9yZXMgYXJlIHBsYW50LWVhdGVycy4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGFuaW1hbCBwcmV5cyBvbiBhIGxpdmluZyBob3N0Pw==

[f]IFllcy4gUGFyYXNpdGVzLCBsaWtlIHRoZSB0YXBld29ybSwgZmVlZCBvZmYgb2YgYSBsaXZpbmcgaG9zdC4=

[f]IE5vLiBTZWNvbmRhcnkgY29uc3VtZXJzIGFyZSBjYXJuaXZvcmVzLiBUaGV5IGtpbGwgdGhlaXIgcHJleS4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGFuaW1hbCBwcmV5cyBvbiBhIGxpdmluZyBob3N0Pw==

[f]IE5vIE9tbml2b3JlcyBlYXQgYm90aCBwbGFudHMgYW5kIGFuaW1hbHMuIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBhbmltYWwgcHJleXMgb24gYSBsaXZpbmcgaG9zdD8=

[f]IE5vLiBBIHNjYXZlbmdlciBmZWVkcyBvbiB0aGUgcmVtYWlucyBvZiBkZWFkIGFuaW1hbHMuIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBhbmltYWwgcHJleXMgb24gYSBsaXZpbmcgaG9zdD88L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD4mbmJzcDs8L3A+CjxwPjxzcGFuIHN0eWxlPSJjb2xvcjogIzAwMDAwMDsiPg==

[q] Organisms like this fungus that get their nutrients from dead and decaying organic matter, breaking it down into simple forms that can re-enter biogeochemical cycles, are

[c]IGRlY29tcG 9zZXJzLg==

[c]IHByb2R1Y2Vycy4=

[c]IHBhcmFzaXRlcy4=

[c]IHByZWRhdG9y

[f]IFllcy4gRGVjb21wb3NlcnMsIHdoaWNoIGluY2x1ZGUgb3JnYW5pc21zIGxpa2UgZnVuZ2kgYW5kIGJhY3RlcmlhLCBnZXQgdGhlaXIgbnV0cmllbnRzIGZyb20gdGhlIGJyZWFrZG93biBvZiBkZWFkIGFuZCBkZWNheWluZyBvcmdhbmljIG1hdHRlci4=

[f]IE5vLiBQcm9kdWNlcnMgYXJlIG9yZ2FuaXNtcyBsaWtlIHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IGNhbiBwcm9kdWNlIGZvb2Qu

[f]IE5vLiBQYXJhc2l0ZXMgYXJlIG9yZ2FuaXNtcyB0aGF0IHByZXkgb24gYSBsaXZpbmcgaG9zdC4=

[f]IE5vLiBQcmVkYXRvcnMga2lsbCBvdGhlciBhbmltYWxzIGZvciBmb29kLg==

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